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Globe Skills!

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by

Eric Toft

on 17 October 2017

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Transcript of Globe Skills!

III. Geographic effects of Earth's rotation
I. Basic Geographic Concepts Developed with the Globe
a.
Hemispheres
i. North and South divided by the
Equator
; why?
ii. East and West are established by the
Prime Meridian
(
0 longitude
) and the
International Date Line
(
180 longitude
); why?
a. Passage of Time:
i. Earth rotates from
west
to
east
; therefore a day (sunlight) and night (darkness) progress from east to west.

1.
Counterclockwise
if looking at the north pole from space.

ii. One day is the length of time it takes for Earth to rotate a single time on its axis=
24
hours

iii. During a one hour period, the sun will pass through
15
of
longitude
.



B. Day and Night

i. Hemispheres of daylight and darkness divided by
Circle of illumination
.

1. East to West passage

ii. Duration

1. All latitudes receive the same amount of sunlight and darkness; the sun will be above the horizon for one-half year and below for one half year.

a. Six month/six months at
poles
; 12 hours /12 hours at the
equator
.


B. Day and Night
Globe Skills!
iii.
Land
hemispheres is centered on
Paris


1.
80
% of land and
95
% of world population

iv.
Water
hemisphere is centered on
New Zealand

1.
20
% of land and
5
% of world population

v. Is there a limit to the number or possible
hemispheres?

b.
Circle of Illumination
- the day vs. night hemisphere

c.
Great Circle
=
i. all pass through earth’s center

ii. Largest circle that can be drawn on Earth or globe

iii. Infinite number can be drawn

iv. The arc of a great circle is the
shortest distance
between
any two points on the earth

d. Direction

i.
Cardinal Directions

1.
North
= North Pole, point of Earth’s rotation

2.
South
= South Pole, point of Earth’s rotation

3.
East
= Direction Earth rotates toward

4.
West
=Direction Earth rotates away from

ii. Up vs. Down

1. Never used when reading a map: ‘up’ on a map is often not true north.

2. Up= away from Earth’s center; down= toward Earth’s center.

II. Direction Questions:
a. Is there a top of the world or bottom?


b. If you stood directly on the S. Pole in what
compass direction(s) could you look?

c. If you stood directly on the North Pole, in what direction would your shadow be cast at 12:00 noon, 6;00 a.m., 6:00 p.m., and midnight on June 21, Sept. 21, Dec. 21, March 21?

d. If you stand on the North Pole and look at the
North Star, Polaris, in what direction are you looking? If you stand on the S. Pole and perform the same physical action, in what direction would you be looking?

e. If you stood on the N. Pole and dropped an object, in what direction would it fall?

f. Where on Earth could you stand and look in
opposite directions, even though you line of sight was in a straight line? Where in the world could you stand and look simultaneously in a number of directions?

g. Is a straight line on a map always the shortest route on Earth?

h. How is time determined at the North and South Pole?

i. You are on a hunting trip. You leave camp and walk directly south for 2 miles. Finding no game, you turn and walk directly east for 1 mile, at which point you shoot a bear. From there you walk directly north for 2 miles and return to camp to inform your partners. What color was the bear?

iv. Types of Time:

1. How have various cultures, at different times in history, determined time?

2. Solar time

a. Prior to 1883, all locations based their time upon the solar
zenith
(high point in daily arc). All points along a given meridian would therefore have the same time.

b. As transportation and communication
technology
advanced, solar time became decreasingly useful.

c. Solar time was still used in some parts of the world until recently (some places may still).

3. Standard Time Zones:
a. In 1883, American
railroads
agreed on a standard system of time zones. Many countries followed suit.

b.
360
in a sphere 24 hours=
1
earth rotation 1day
15
solar passage per hour = standard time zone
7 ½
on each side of a
meridian
, beginning with the
Prime Meridian, 0 longitude
, Greenwich, UK


c. Time zone boundaries are often altered for the sake of convenience

d. Time zones in the continental U.S.

i. Eastern 8:00 pm Central 7:00 pm Mountain 6:00 pm Pacific 5:00 pm

e. In crossing a time zone going
west
you
gain
and hour (set watch back); in crossing a zone going
east
, you
lose
an hour (set watch ahead)

f. International Dateline

i. Earth’s circumference is 25,000 miles at the equator. Therefore, planes and satellites, which exceed 1,000 mph, could, in
theory, return before they started! For that matter, an individual could walk rapidly around the N. or S. Pole and end up in the 22nd century or Stone Age depending upon what direction they went!


ii. The location of the International Dateline was
arbitrarily
created to roughly match the
180 meridian
.

1. Fewest number of people live there so fewest inconvenienced.

iii. Change:

1. East (US) to west (Asia) = jump to next day (
lose day
) West (Asia) to east (US) = go back one day (
gain day
)

IDL
W Monday July 1 | Sunday June 30 E


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Dateline-animation-3deg-borderonly-180px.gif


D. Passage of Daily Temperatures

i.
Stove burner
: turn on the burner, takes a few seconds to heat
up; turn it off and it takes some time for it to cool down.

ii. Coldest time is
right before dawn
.

IV. Geographic Effects Resulting from Earth’s Revolution

a. Solar Year
i.
365 ¼
days to complete orbit

1. “
Leap Year
” extra day every four years.

b. Seasons

i. Basics to remember

1.
23 ½ axial tilt
and the direction of the axis are both constant.

2. Seasons are always
opposite
in N. and S. hemispheres

3. Circle of illumination (
duration of sunlight) varies
throughout the year.

ii. Latitudinal coordinates and earth’s motion around the sun.

1. The sun is directly overhead on specific dates which we use to marks the seasons.

2. June 21 23 ½ N (
Tropic of Cancer
)
Summer Solstice
(N. Hemis)
Sept. 22 Equator
Equinox
(Autumnal/
Fall
)
Dec. 22 23 ½ S (
Tropic of Capricorn
)
Winter Solstice
(N. Hemis)
March 21 Equator
Equinox
(Vernal/
Spring
)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/MonthlyMeanT.gif


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/BlueMarble_monthlies_animation.gif

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