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Transcript of Globe Skills!
I. Basic Geographic Concepts Developed with the Globe
i. North and South divided by the
ii. East and West are established by the
) and the
International Date Line
a. Passage of Time:
i. Earth rotates from
; therefore a day (sunlight) and night (darkness) progress from east to west.
if looking at the north pole from space.
ii. One day is the length of time it takes for Earth to rotate a single time on its axis=
iii. During a one hour period, the sun will pass through
B. Day and Night
i. Hemispheres of daylight and darkness divided by
Circle of illumination
1. East to West passage
1. All latitudes receive the same amount of sunlight and darkness; the sun will be above the horizon for one-half year and below for one half year.
a. Six month/six months at
; 12 hours /12 hours at the
B. Day and Night
hemispheres is centered on
% of land and
% of world population
hemisphere is centered on
% of land and
% of world population
v. Is there a limit to the number or possible
Circle of Illumination
- the day vs. night hemisphere
i. all pass through earth’s center
ii. Largest circle that can be drawn on Earth or globe
iii. Infinite number can be drawn
iv. The arc of a great circle is the
any two points on the earth
= North Pole, point of Earth’s rotation
= South Pole, point of Earth’s rotation
= Direction Earth rotates toward
=Direction Earth rotates away from
ii. Up vs. Down
1. Never used when reading a map: ‘up’ on a map is often not true north.
2. Up= away from Earth’s center; down= toward Earth’s center.
II. Direction Questions:
a. Is there a top of the world or bottom?
b. If you stood directly on the S. Pole in what
compass direction(s) could you look?
c. If you stood directly on the North Pole, in what direction would your shadow be cast at 12:00 noon, 6;00 a.m., 6:00 p.m., and midnight on June 21, Sept. 21, Dec. 21, March 21?
d. If you stand on the North Pole and look at the
North Star, Polaris, in what direction are you looking? If you stand on the S. Pole and perform the same physical action, in what direction would you be looking?
e. If you stood on the N. Pole and dropped an object, in what direction would it fall?
f. Where on Earth could you stand and look in
opposite directions, even though you line of sight was in a straight line? Where in the world could you stand and look simultaneously in a number of directions?
g. Is a straight line on a map always the shortest route on Earth?
h. How is time determined at the North and South Pole?
i. You are on a hunting trip. You leave camp and walk directly south for 2 miles. Finding no game, you turn and walk directly east for 1 mile, at which point you shoot a bear. From there you walk directly north for 2 miles and return to camp to inform your partners. What color was the bear?
iv. Types of Time:
1. How have various cultures, at different times in history, determined time?
2. Solar time
a. Prior to 1883, all locations based their time upon the solar
(high point in daily arc). All points along a given meridian would therefore have the same time.
b. As transportation and communication
advanced, solar time became decreasingly useful.
c. Solar time was still used in some parts of the world until recently (some places may still).
3. Standard Time Zones:
a. In 1883, American
agreed on a standard system of time zones. Many countries followed suit.
in a sphere 24 hours=
earth rotation 1day
solar passage per hour = standard time zone
on each side of a
, beginning with the
Prime Meridian, 0 longitude
, Greenwich, UK
c. Time zone boundaries are often altered for the sake of convenience
d. Time zones in the continental U.S.
i. Eastern 8:00 pm Central 7:00 pm Mountain 6:00 pm Pacific 5:00 pm
e. In crossing a time zone going
and hour (set watch back); in crossing a zone going
an hour (set watch ahead)
f. International Dateline
i. Earth’s circumference is 25,000 miles at the equator. Therefore, planes and satellites, which exceed 1,000 mph, could, in
theory, return before they started! For that matter, an individual could walk rapidly around the N. or S. Pole and end up in the 22nd century or Stone Age depending upon what direction they went!
ii. The location of the International Dateline was
created to roughly match the
1. Fewest number of people live there so fewest inconvenienced.
1. East (US) to west (Asia) = jump to next day (
) West (Asia) to east (US) = go back one day (
W Monday July 1 | Sunday June 30 E
D. Passage of Daily Temperatures
: turn on the burner, takes a few seconds to heat
up; turn it off and it takes some time for it to cool down.
ii. Coldest time is
right before dawn
IV. Geographic Effects Resulting from Earth’s Revolution
a. Solar Year
days to complete orbit
” extra day every four years.
i. Basics to remember
23 ½ axial tilt
and the direction of the axis are both constant.
2. Seasons are always
in N. and S. hemispheres
3. Circle of illumination (
duration of sunlight) varies
throughout the year.
ii. Latitudinal coordinates and earth’s motion around the sun.
1. The sun is directly overhead on specific dates which we use to marks the seasons.
2. June 21 23 ½ N (
Tropic of Cancer
Sept. 22 Equator
Dec. 22 23 ½ S (
Tropic of Capricorn
March 21 Equator