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## Kenzie Kyle

on 22 May 2014

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#### Transcript of Sciece of Cheerleading

Velocity and Momentum
This can be demonstrated by a girl doing a back handspring. When her velocity changes so does the momentum. As soon as her feet leave the ground both her velocity and momentum changes.
How is Gravity related to cheerleading?
In cheer leading, most of the time, your center of gravity is all in your core. This can change depending on what movements your doing. Gravity is affected on stunting, jumping, and tumbling.
Newtons 3rd Law
For every action there is an equal an opposite reaction.
In other words.....
What goes up must come down!
Potential Energy
Energy due to the position of an object relative to other objects.
PE= Mass times gravitational acceleration (9.8m/s) times height from ground. Potential energy exits when the flyer is at the lowest point. The flyer is at her/his lowest point after the snap down from their skill.
Newtons 1st Law
Bases put an upward force on the flyer, causing her to go upward. This means that the bases will grab the flyers foot and push up and hold her up in the air.

Kenzie Kyle

Energy
The ability to preform work or move an object. The bases move the flyer upward causing them to work and the flyer to move.
Kinetic Energy
Energy due to motion (the body of the flyer.)
KE=(1/2) Times mass times velocity squared.
Kinetic energy exist when the flyer leaves the bases hands and flies upward.
Friction
Works Cited
http://www.unc.edu/~reet/physicsside.html
There is always debate on if cheerleading is a sport or not, but this sport is actually full of hardwork and science.
How is friction related to cheerleding? The one main reason, is because of the cheerleaders shoes. The bottom of the shoes are made of rubber. This supports the cheerleader from falling. You especially need friction when stunting. A flyer wouldn't want her feet slipping out of her bases hands.
What do the shoes do for the cheerleader?
Lightweight- Now typically between 4 and 8oz., cheer shoes continue to get lighter, so cheerleaders can jump even higher.

Finger Grips- Bases need to be able to grab the flyers foot and grips provide easy placement. This prevents the flyers foot from slipping.

Smooth Rubber Sole- While flyers are held up during stunts, the shoe is constantly in contact with the base’s hands/chest so the sole is smooth to reduce uncomfortable rubbing.

Padding- Cheerleaders are constantly moving, jumping, and tumbling so cheer shoes use EVA cushioning as a lightweight way to absorb the shock from all the movements.

Breathable- As cheerleaders practice and perform routines, their feet heat up and swell, causing discomfort. To eliminate that, cheer shoes are made of breathable material to increase comfort throughout practice and competition.

Synthetic Leather- This allows for easy cleaning so cheerleaders can look neat, clean, and pristine down to their toes!
Mass
Cheer leading consist of many stunts. In most stunts it really helps if the flyer has a smaller mass. If the flyer has a smaller mass you can get more power in the stunt and it's easier for the bases and back spot to throw the flyer up in the air. Which is why the flyers are typically some of the smallest cheerleaders.
Terms
Flyer- the cheer leader that gets lifted into the air
Bases- the people who lift up the flyer, by each grabbing one foot.
Backspot- the person who stands at the back of the lift and holds the flyers ankles for support.
Full- the stunt in which the flyer stands with each foot in the hands of a base while the bases arms are in an extended overhead position.
Lib- the stunt where the flyer is standing on one foot and both bases hold the same foot.
Round off back hand spring- a flip where you run and go into a cartwheel landing on both feet at the same time and then doing a backflip with hands.
Weight distrabution
Weight distrabution is important in cheer because without it the flyer wouldn't be balanced and fall. A flyer should have her weight evenly distrabuted between both bases.
Inertia

Between 1982 and 2007 there were 107 fatal or disabling injures from high school cheerleaders. This made it the most dangerous girls high school sport.
Injuries
Strains/sprains: 52.4 percent
Soft tissue injuries: 18.4 percent
Fractures/dislocations: 16.4 percent
Lacerations/avulsions: 3.8 percent
Other: 5.5 percent
In cheerleading inertia is used in tumbling. For instance, during a round-off back handspring. After you perform the back handspring you jump up into the air with what is called a rebound. The speed you were traveling while you were tumbling gave you inertia and wanted you to keep going into more amazing flips.
Centripetal forces
Centripetal forces take place during cartwheels
(as well as other tumbling), the force causes the cheerleader to move in a curved path.

Balanced/Unbalanced forces
These forces take place when the flyer is going into a stunt. The balanced force means that the flyer is standing still in a extension, and no forces are acted on it, resembling her being balanced. Unbalanced happens when she is unstable and flailing her arms in the air, this happens because her net force wasn't zero, Resulting in the change of motion.
October 13th,2013

September 28th,2013

November 20th,2013

December 4th,2013
Definitions
Speed- the ratio of the distance traveled by an object (regardless of direction) to the time required to travel that distance.
Velocity- the rate in which an object moves in a specific direction.
Positive acceleration- when velocity increases the acceleration is positive.
Balanced force- occurs when the total of all forces on an object equals 0, and the motion doesn't change.
Unbalanced force- occurs when net force of the object DOES NOT equal 0, resulting a change in motion
Net Force- overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on an object are added together.
Applied Force- how much force is applied on an object.
Force of Gravity- the opposite of normal force, the force that keeps us on the floor.
Inertia- the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest, or be in constant speed unless a force is applied to it.
Momentum- quantity used to measure the motion of a body equal to the product of it's mass & velocity.Any change in speed or direction of a body changes it's momentum
Types of flexability
Dynamic flexibility (also called kinetic flexibility) is the ability to perform dynamic (or kinetic) movements of the muscles to bring a limb through its full range of motion in the joints.
Static-active flexibility (also called active flexibility) is the ability to assume and maintain extended positions using only the tension of the ag onists and synergists while the antagonists are being stretched. For example, lifting the leg and keeping it high without any external support (other than from your own leg muscles).
Static-passive flexibility, (also called passive flexibility) is the ability to assume extended positions and then maintain them using only your weight, the support of your limbs, or some other apparatus (such as a chair or a barre). Note that the ability to maintain the position does not come solely from your muscles, as it does with static-active flexibility.
Besides the countless amount of stretching there are also a lot of external and internal influenes on flexablity.
internal influences
the type of joint (some joints simply aren't meant to be flexible)
the internal resistance within a joint
bone structures which limit movement
the elasticity of muscle tissue (muscle tissue that is scarred due to a previous injury is not very elastic)
the elasticity of tendons and ligaments (ligaments do not stretch much and tendons should not stretch at all)
the elasticity of skin (skin actually has some degree of elasticity, but not much)
the ability of a muscle to relax and contract to achieve the greatest range of movement
the temperature of the joint and associated tissues (joints and muscles offer better flexibility at body temperatures that are 1 to 2 degrees higher than normal).
External influences
The temperature of the place where one is training (a warmer temperature is more conducive to increased flexibility)
the time of day (most people are more flexible in the afternoon than in the morning, peaking from about 2:30pm-4pm)
the stage in the recovery process of a joint (or muscle) after injury (injured joints and muscles will usually offer a lesser degree of flexibility than healthy ones)
gender (females are generally more flexible than males)
one's ability to perform a particular exercise (practice makes perfect)
one's commitment to achieving flexibility
the restrictions of any clothing or equipment
https://www.gems.gov.za/default.aspx?PS38hVl7mfzL+Xmhz68ecw==
Newton's 2nd law
Acceleration increases with an increased force, and decreases with an increased mass. This makes it easier for the bases to lift a smaller flyer with a smaller mass.