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ICT for Young Learners and Games for ESL and EFL Classes

ICT for Young Learners and Games for ESL and EFL Classes
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serpil erdoğan

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of ICT for Young Learners and Games for ESL and EFL Classes

the three well-known theories Computers have become crucial at all levels of schooling. As technology in general, and information and communication technologies (ICT) in particular, permeate our education systems, there is increasing concern that young children are being “fast forwarded” through the basics of educational uses of ICT (Haugland, 2000) . Children learn through social interaction. (Vygotsky, 1962) Children are active learners and thinkers. (Piaget, 1970) Children learn effectively through scaffolding
by adults. (Bruner, 1983) "iGen" "If we teach how we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow." -John Dewey Traditional rote processes or pre-packaging information for students in the form of textbooks and lectures are considered as leading to passive and fragmented learning. Davranışçılara göre davranış değişmesine neden olan
3 temel öğrenme süreci vardır. "Millenial Students" "Generation-Y" Clements(1998) argued that an effective learning underpins inquiry learning, problem-based learning and action learning, and therefore suggested that the use of ICTs could have the potential of providing students with real world learning resources. Traditional Teaching
and
Teaching with ICT Applications
These
'' digital young learners'' are The main aspects of pupils’ motivation are
an enhanced sense of achievement, increase in self-directed learning, enhanced enjoyment and interest, enhanced self-esteem and
an increased commitment to the learning task.

1. Bir davranışın sürekliliğini sağlayan, o davranışın sonuçlarıdır.
2. Davranışların sürekliliğini sağlayan uyaranlar her zaman belirgin değildir.
3. Davranış, kendisinin ortaya çıkarttığı uyarandan etkilenir.
4. Organizmanın davranışları dış uyaranlara bağlı değildir. Birçok davranış uyaran olmadan ortaya çıkar.
5. Organizmanın davranışlarının birçoğu bilinçli tepkilerdir.
6. Davranışın sonucu öğrenmede belirleyicidir. Ödül getiren, cezadan koruyan davranışlar kalıcılaşır (tekrarlanır), ceza getiren davranışlar kaybolur. Pedagogical Aspects *Students can access enormous amounts of information quickly; *students can work at their own pace; *special needs, both remedial and extension, can be offered during the same lesson; *ICT offers a host of different tools to demonstrate learning suitable for divergent and different intelligences *young students have readily accepted the technology. PEKİŞTİREÇLER
Pekiştireç
Ortaya çıkan bir davranışın sürekliliğini, ortama sunulması ya da ortamdan çekilmesiyle sağlayan ve organizmayı olumlu yönde etkileyen uyarıcılara pekiştireç denir.
Pekiştirme
Ortaya çıkan bir davranışın sürekliliğini sağlamak amacıyla davranışın ödüllendirilmesi ya da olumsuz uyarıcının ortamdan çekilmesi işlemine pekiştirme denir. İHTİYAÇ TÜRLERİNE GÖRE:
Birincil Pekiştireçler
İkincil Pekiştireçler PEKİŞTİREÇ TÜRLERİ BİRİNCİL PEKİŞTİREÇLER
Fizyolojik ihtiyaçları karşılayan ve organizmayı belli yönde harekete geçirip, davranışa yön veren öğrenilmemiş uyarıcılardır. Yiyecekler, su, uyku, cinsellik, korunma, fiziksel acı örnek olarak sıralanabilir. İKİNCİL PEKİŞTİREÇLER
Koşullu pekiştireçlerdir. Sosyal ihtiyaçları karşılayan, sonradan öğrenilmiş uyarıcılara denir. Nötr durumdayken ancak birincil pekiştireçlerle ilişkilendiklerinde uyaran özelliği kazanırlar.
İkincil Pekiştireçler Üç Başlıkta Sınıflandırılır:
1. Sosyal Pekiştireçler: Övme, saygı gösterme, ilgilenme, ciddiye alma, önemseme, gülme, takdir etme, onaylama, kucaklama vb.
2. Faaliyetsel Pekiştireçler: Bireyin sevdiği, hoşlandığı bir etkinliği yapmasına izin verilmesi. Örneğin, çocuğun bilgisayarla, sevdiği oyuncakla oynaması, sokağa çıkarılması, arkadaşlarıyla birlikte olması, sinemaya-tiyatroya gitmesine vb. izin verilmesi
3. Sembolik Pekiştireçler: Para, not, marka, alkışlatma vb. In any learning environment for children, ICT based activities should never replace the use of concrete materials and manipulatives.
C E Z A
Organizmanın istemediği, olumsuz bir durum ortaya çıkartan uyaranlara ceza denir.
Edimsel koşullanmada, “olumsuz pekiştirecin ortama konulması” ya da “olumlu pekiştirecin ortamdan çıkartılması;” her iki durum da organizma için ceza niteliği taşımaktadır. Her iki durumda da davranışın yapılma sıklığı azalır ya da söner. Edimsel koşullanma
ödüle götüren ya da
cezadan kurtaran bir davranışın yapılmasını öğretmektir Ödül ve Ceza
Ödül sözcüğü, olumlu pekiştirici kavramıyla eş anlamlı olarak kullanılır.
Fakat ceza kavramı
olumsuz pekiştirici kavramı ile eş anlamlı olarak kullanılmaz. Ceza, istenilmeyen davranışlara
verilir ve bu davranışın ortaya çıkma olasılığını azaltır.
Olumsuz pekiştirici ise, istenen davranış
ortaya çıktığında kullanılmaz.
Olumsuz pekiştirici, istenen davranışın ortaya çıkma olasılığını
artırır.
Skinner'e göre davranışlar, hem olumlu hem de olumsuz pekiştiriciler ile belli bir biçime sokulabilir.
Skinner, buna "biçimlendirme" diyor. Bir edim ne kadar çabuk ödüllendirilirse o kadar sağlam
olarak benimsenmektedir. EDİMSEL KOŞULLANMANIN ÖĞRETİME KATKISI Çocuk eğitiminde, sınıfta disiplinin sağlanmasında,
psiko-motor ve duyuşsal davranışların kazandırılmasında
önemli rol oynamaktadır. Edimsel Koşullama öğretmenlere, öğrencilerin istenmedik davranışları ile baş etmelerinde sönme gibi önemli bir yöntem sunmaktadır. Sönme istenmeyen bir davranışın pekiştirilmemesi ve görmezden gelinmesi suretiyle sıklığının azaltılmasıdır. Öğretmenler öğrencilerin istenmedik davranışlarını engellemek veya ortadan kaldırmak için ceza yerine sönme sürecinden yararlanmalıdırlar.
Conclusion for and GAMES for ESL/EFL classes Computers should be introduced to young children when they are about three years of age” (Haugland 2000:26). 21st century
Young Learners
Using Computers By the age of 21 will have http://depd.wisc.edu/series/06_4168.pdf ...but will have spent less than 5,000 hours reading sent 200,000 emails watched 20,000 hours of TV spent 10,000 hours talking on a cell phone spent 10,000 hours playing video games "Digital Natives" ''Digital immigrants'' "Net Generation Learners" "Generation-Y" They learn in a way that is foreign to many teachers... Technology has become an indispensible part of our lives. in our daily life and in education *Low concentration span but
easily excited Who are
young
learners? As one year of age makes a huge difference among children, the generalizations made for young learners may need more detailed analysis and some subcategorization. 3-12 years old Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics *Repetition and revision is necessary *Limited motor skills (using a pen and scissors)but kinesthetic and energetic *Learn holistically *Love stories, fantasy, imagination, art,
drawing and coloring *High motivation; active involvement *Love talking but problems in sharing *Short memory: Learn slowly Forget easily "ICTs puts considerable pressure on their own knowledge of technology and information processes and their ability to develop the information skills of students." Haugland (2000) There should be an appropriate balance between hands-on and other work. *Increased motivation through perceived value of an activity might lead to: *Achieving more control over one’s own learning Davis et al. (1989) developed a theory claiming that students will only accept the use of ICT if they find it both useful and easy to use. The need for teacher intervention is essential to avoid leaving the technology to control the lessons. The teacher needs to see the real effect ICT materials have on the learning process. The motivational aspects of using ICT will be effective only with appropriate planning and guidance from the teacher. *students can interact with peers and experts outside the classroom, town, and/or country; possible pitfalls *The ability of educational systems, curriculum development to keep pace with ICT innovation is problematic; *The individualized role of the teacher can be diminished where more and more material is offered via a centralized content vendor. There could be a loss of teaching individuality; *There seems to be too little attention in training teachers on how to best exploit ICT for teaching. *A greater interest and involvement in learning *Greater self-esteem *Determination to achieve specific tasks *Spending more time on the learning task *Trying to do better than one’s peers and Children must be permitted to explore books, measure water and sand, draw with pencils and crayons, and write on paper, together with all the other traditional experiences of kindergarten and primary school. However in this digital age ICT applications are crucial and there are many ways ICT applications can be used to complement and enrich the learning experiences of young children.
Effective Use of ICT
with
Young Learners For children in the early grades of primary school, each classroom should have a “computer centre” and a collection of developmentally appropriate software. *The roles of an adult sitting near a computer with children should be that of observer, listener and facilitator. learning atmosphere The learner the teacher Recommened educational Sites A huge ESL/EFL site with a vast collection of PDF worksheets and flashcards, activities, games, ebooks and media for English language students This is a site full of fun ESL games to practise and improve English skills. Games including Hangman and a Spelling Bee and there are lots of topics to choose from. The Role of ICT in EFL Teaching/An action research project with young learners in the Czech Republic
By Neil Kisby
Aim:The main aim of the project was to discover whether the use of the CALL material enhances pupils´ motivation.
Age: 11-12 (Year Six) Research Sample 1: Level: The students are in their third year of ELT study.

Grouping:The activities were carried out with pupils working individually – one pupil per computer. Methodology
This is an action research. Pre and post test is conducted and observation has done during the research. THANK
YOU *new way/have some difficulties to understand *work at their own pace *eager to complete as many exercises as possible *compare each other’ s achievements Research Sample 2: *A Study of Uses ICT in Primary Education through Four Winning School Cases in the Taiwan Schools *Twenty-nine students and a young male and two female English teacher were involved Results *The students overall had a positive perception toward using Internet tools *The integration of ICT transformed learning from a traditional passive experience to one of discovery, exploration, and excitement in a less stressful setting *A computer-mediated communication environment could lower students’ psychological barriers to enable them to express their opinions freely and to communicate actively on the Internet
primarily a qualitative research methods
case-study
interpretive and descriptive in nature
quantitative data/ student demographic information Data Collection Methodology
*a questionaire
*telephone interviews
*online data collection
*activity observations ? ? C A T E F A Teachers' authority ICT and Motivation ! *Adults should never take over control of the keyboard or mouse from children unless there is some physical danger to the children. ''Gamestorming'' Games
for
Young Learners Andrew Wright(1984) *fun *intense and meaningful
practice of language *encouragement *engagement *integration of multiple intelligences *various skills *motivating and challenging *breaks the routine
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