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Clones in Nature - OCR A2 biology

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zainab MN

on 16 February 2013

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Transcript of Clones in Nature - OCR A2 biology

CLONES IN NATURE ZAINAB and SABIHA Natural Vegetative propagation
in plants Advantages of vegetative propagation Disadvantages of Vegitative Propagation Thank you for watching :D Elm trees Other types of vegetative propagation Vegetative propagation Clones: Advantages Asexual Reproduction what are clones? Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same from the same original DNA.
-Identical twins formed when zygote splits in two (natural clones)
-Plants can reproduce asexually (producing clones)
-Bacteria split by binary fission (mitosis

The production of cloned DNA, cells and organisms is a natural process for growth and reproduction that can also be achieved by artificial means
The basis of reproduction in nearly all eukaryotes is mitosis. The genetic material replicates and separates these two cells are clones of each other. in multicellular organisms such as plants, the cells produced my mitosis can grow in to separate organisms with DNA identical to the parent cell. - Quick, allows organisms to reproduce rapidly thus
take advantage of resources in the environment
-Can be completed of sexual reproduction fails
- All offspring contain genetic information needed to survive. The Production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms. these offspring are clones of the parent. A number of plant species, including Elm trees, are adapted to reproduce asexually following damage to the parent plant.This allows the plant to survive catastrophes such as diseases or burning.

New growth in the form of root suckers appear within two months and of the destruction of the main trunk. these suckers grow from meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground where least damage is likely to have occurred. - Tubers form when specialised underground stems become swollen with nutrient molecules. new plants grow from these. eg. potatoes

- condensed shoots with short stems and fleshy leaf bases form bulbs containing nutrients. eg. Onions

-Runners grow along the ground from the parent plant. At the tips they form roots and shoots. E.g strawberries
- Root suckers help the Elm spread because they can grow all around the original trunk.
-When the tree is stressed or trunk dies the suckers grow into a circle of new Elms. This in turn puts out new suckers. - There is no genetic variation within the cloned population, so natural selection cannot occur.
because new Elms are clones of the parent, they cannot develop a resistance to any diseases and fungal attacks. Disadvantages -Does not produce any genetic variety so any weaknesses are passed on.
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