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Transcript of ANIMAL FARM
and the Russian Revolution
- How does the scenary of the farm relates to the scenary of the Russian Revolution?
Fought in the First World War;
Theocratic Monarchy (Czarism): seen by Ocidental Europe as late, archaic;
Mainly agrarian country, where
80% of the population were peasants, who worked with the land
Russia in the beggining of the XX Century
The country had feudal characteristics, what fragilized the buorgeoisie.
THE USSR TIMELINE
THE BOOK: ANIMAL FARM
a brief summary
MAIN SOCIAL SUBJECTS
Russian Orthodox Church;
Cadets (constitutional-democrathic Party);
- represented the buorgeoisie
Socialist Revolutionary Party (left wing peasants);
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party;
Other groups: non-qualified working class, educated working class, upper class, military forces, uneducated masses.
Por Lucas, Mateus J., Miguel, Olívia, Rafael S., Victor P. e Zoë - 3º E.M. B
Written by George Orwell;
Published in August 17th, 1945;
Context: Cold war, last moments of the Second World War;
Synopsis: the animals from the Manor Farm rebbells against the humans, and start to build an uthopic society, where all the animals are equal. The Animal Farm, in the beggining, prospers, but the thirst for power ends up stablishing a dictatorship as much corrupted as the human society.
The book retells the story of Soviet communism in the form of an animal fable, and it allegorises the power of the dictator Joseph Stalin, as a satire.
MARCH: Abdication of the Czar;
BOLSHEVIK RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.
1918 - 1921
Russian Civil War: reaction against the revolution
Treaty of Brest-Litowski: Peace with Germany;
1920 finishes the Civil War;
Lenin got shot in 1921.
1923 - 1924
: STALIN ERA
Purge, arrest, expulsion and execution of political opponents
Collectivization of Agriculture: forced collective work in farms;
First Five-Year Plan: great changes in Russian society.
"Socialism in one country only"
Lenin dies - 1924.
1928 - 1953
World War II;
1939: Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact;
1941: Germany invades Russia;
1943: Stalingrad War;
Stalin's death: 1953
, since both of these ideologies promote an idea of
equality, collective, solidariety and classlessness
- The animals in power, their "dictatorship" over the humans, would be the proletarian dictatorship over the capitalists, leading it to the
Both of them didn't "work" in practice -
leaders who created laws that contradicted the principals of social equality
: PIGS X STALIN)
Song: "Beasts of England";
All animals are equal;
Animals control their production;
Everyone owns the farm;
No class distinctions.
The Communist Manifesto;
Song: "Internacionale Anthem";
All people are equal;
State regulates economy;
No private property;
No class distinctions.
the animals do all the work, barely get paid, and Mr. Jones (the owner of the farm) wins over their hard work.
CORRUPTION OF IDEALS
It is promised a better future with a new system and equality. After a good beginning, starts process of gradual disintegration of the laws that determined equality. Situation gets worse, and for some, even worse than before the Revolution;
The leaders of the revolution end up "looking" more like man than animals:
"The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already, it was impossible to say which was which."
"All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others."
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER
Intelligence is used as a form of power. The pigs are the "cleverest" in the novel, because they learn easily how to write, assuming the management of the Farm. At first, their intelligence is used as a benefit to all the animals, helping to work with machines. Later, it becomes an personal advantage for them, so they can eat and sleep more than the other animals because they "use their brains".
In the USSR, the intellectual classes occupy the most important jobs in the government.
Karl Marx | Vladimir Lenin
Napoleon's actions troughout the history of Animal Farm mirrors Stalin's actions throughout the USSR history;
Napoleon disputes power with Snowball, and ended up beating him. He points out Snowball as an enemy, same as what happened between Stalin and Trotsky;
Napoleon wasn't as clever as Snowball, and Stalin wasn't an intellectual like Trotsky;
Napoleon represents, in general, the political tyrants that have emerged throughout human history, since his name does reference to the French general Napoleon, who betrayed the democratic principles, becoming an autoritary subject.
Wise and old, dies before the Revolution (just like Marx);
Taught Animalism, while Marx invented Communism;
Marx and Lenin: born in educated middle-classes;
Famous and respected by the other animals – “Old Major (…) was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour’s sleep in order to hear what he had to say”.
Wants to change the society, revolutionary ideals: “No animal in England is free. (…)."
Both died before Stalin and Trotsky fight for the power of the USSR, same as Old Major, who died before Napoleon and Snowball disputed.
were not good speakers, depended on other parts to control society and disseminate their thoughts;
Stablished oppressive regimes;
Represent the desire for onipotent and absolut power;
in one place only;
Killed their opponents.
used the dogs, Moses, Squealer to control the animals.
used the Secret Service, Orthodox Church and the media.
Propaganda | Media | The Pravda
Young, intelligent, good speaker, idealistic;
Among Napoleon, Snowball leads the Animal Farm after Old Major's death - same happens with Trotsky and Stalin after Lenin's death;
Snowball's exiled, and used as an scapgoat to every problem in the farm by Napoleon, who assure he's an enemy. Trotsky is also exiled from USSR, due to Stalin's persecution of his opponents;
Snowball: chased away by the dogs | Trotsky: chased away by KGB (Secret Police);
Often disagrees with Napoleon (Trotsky X Stalin disagreements);
Expansionist: attempt to spread Animalism worldwide and to improve Animal Farm’s infrastructure - Trotsky believed in the internationalization of the revolution;.
"Could turn black into white" - extremely persuasive;
Reduction of meals: "Squealer always spoke of it as a "readjustment", never as a "reduction" - manipulative, control of information;
By the use of complicated words, he confuses and intimidates the uneducated.
The poet pig who writes about Napoleon and the patriotic song “Animal Farm, Animal Farm” to replace the earlier anthem: “Beasts of England,” which Old Major passes on to the others;
Represents the USSR artists, since the art had to be approved by the government.
RODIGHERO, Alex Pires. "A CONSTRUÇÃO DE IDEAIS REVOLUCIONÁRIOS EM A REVOLUÇÃO DOS BICHOS DE GEORGE ORWELL E O SOCIALISMO RUSSO NO SÉCULO XX" - http://linguisticaelinguagem.cepad.net.br/EDICOES/09/Arquivos/04.pdf
Animal Farm, by George Orwell. 1945.
ANIMALS WHO REPRESENT GROUPS OF USSR
Boxer and Clover
Male and Female Working Classes
Uneducated and blinded masses of Russia;
Easily persuaded: intimidated by the pigs and convinced by Napoleon proposes;
Work along with the state and against the other animals (not intentional);
“four legs good, two legs better!”
Don't have any knowledge to make superior works.
the uneducated workers
Make all heavy work at the farm;
Naive, not so able to think, easily pesuaded;
Represent the best qualities of the exploited working classes: dedication, loyalty, and a huge capacity for labor;
Inability to recognize political corruption;
Boxer keeps the farm united, believes in the revolution.
the upper classes or the bourgeois
One of the only animals who doesn't work hard in the farm;
Didn’t think about the animal farm – don’t care about the revolution;
Went with anyone who’d give what she wanted – bourgeoisie looked for other countries;
Fled from farm as the revolution progressed;
Receive the same as the other animals.
Represents the Russian Orthodox Church
Moses: Biblical name;
Sugarcandy Mountain: animal's heaven;
Snowball and Major against him; => Marx believes that religion is an alienating system to the population: “Religion is the opium of the people”
The Church and the Czar: Moses and Mr. Jones
Moses' return to the Animal Farm corresponds to the reintroduction of Russian Orthodox Church in 1941, by Stalin.
Represents the superior working class, or those who have studie.
Intelligent and ambiguous character;
Brighter the other workers because she reads and can propose reflections ;
Reads but does not compreehend.
Aware of the government opression;
Work hard as any animal
Opposite to Napoleon regime but accept his acts bacause nothing can be done;
The dogs -
Blebell, Jessie and Pincher
Also represent the Police and USSR's Secret Service;
Loyal to Napoleon, only listen to his orders
Repress the other animals if they do something bad or wrong;
Make sure if all work is going well;
The URSS Former Military Forces
“Why then do we continue in this miserable condition?Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen from us by human beings.”
Czar Nicholas II
Don’t take care of the animals: forget to feed them. In Russia, the peasants starved during Czar Nicholas II mandate;
Represent the capitalism: all the society hardwork is transferred to them;
The revolt by the animals against Mr. Jones is similar to the revolt by the Russians against Czar Nicholas II.
Ocidental Capitalistic countries
allegory of Adolf Hitler, since he stablished a brief alliance with Napoleon.
represent the capitalistic countries
Continent scaled down to the farms' town.
Why Animal Farm?
- Animal Farm is a metaphor to a country scaled down to a farm;
- It symbolizes Russia and the Soviet Union under Communist Party rule, since it represents a country mostly composed by agricultural activities and a rural population, in farms.
- The symbol of the farm represents Russia in this context
- Internal structure of a nation: government (the pigs), a police force or army (the dogs), a working class (the other animals), and state holidays and rituals.
Other farms: other countries – had more technology, allegorizing the countries’ industrialization.
- How does the scenary of the farm relates to the scenary of the Russian Revolution?
Beasts of England
International Communist Anthem
Stand up, damned of the Earth
Stand up, prisoners of starvation
Reason thunders in its volcano
This is the eruption of the end.
Of the past let us make a clean slate
Enslaved masses, stand up, stand up.
The world is about to change its foundation
We are nothing, let us be all.
This is the final struggle
Let us group together, and tomorrow
Will be the human race
Beasts of England! Beasts of Ireland!
Beasts of land and sea and skies!
Hear the hoofbeats of tomorrow!
See the golden future rise!
How does the life of an animal pass?
In endless drudgery.
What's the first lesson an animal learns?
To endure its slavery.
How does the life of an animal end?
In cruel butchery.
Now the day of beasts is coming,
Tyrant man shall lose his throne
And the shining fields of England
Shall be trod by beasts alone.
OLD MAJOR SKULL
Forced Collective Farms
Reduction of meals
Animal's Revolt - Bolshevik Russian Revolution
BUILDING THE WINDMILL - FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN
management of equipment in the farm
high urbanization and industrialization process
BATTLE OF COWSHED - CIVIL WAR
WHITE ARMY (counter-revolucionary)
MR. JONES ARMY
EXECUTION OF ANIMALS - THE GREAT PURGES