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Advances in Medical Technology

How has technology contributed in stopping infectious diseases?


on 6 February 2015

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Transcript of Advances in Medical Technology

As I said before, penicillin was first discovered when
Professor Alexander Fleming was cleaning his laboratory. Some bacteria he was growing had a mold growing near them. The bacteria didn't grow near
the mold.
Fleming thought
the mold was killing
the bacteria.
Important People in Medicine
History of Medicine
How has technology contributed in stopping infectious diseases?
Hippocrates was a famous ancient Greek doctor who was called "the father of medicine" for writing many books on medicine (the Hippocratic Collection). In Greece, most people believed illnesses were punishments from the gods. Hippocrates encouraged Greek doctors to study patients and symptoms of diseases. Today this is called "clinical observation." He believed that all diseases are natural, not caused by gods.
Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner was a British country doctor who made one of the most important discoveries in medical history, because he discovered the first vaccine. Jenner used the idea that weaker strains of virus could teach the body to defend itself from the real virus. He used cowpox, a weaker version of smallpox as a vaccine for smallpox.
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur was one of the most important people in medical history. He did lots of research on microbes and diseases. Microbes had already been discovered, but he was one of the first to realize that microbes must cause infectious diseases, and that heat will kill them. Many were skeptical, but he proved his hypothesis with lots of experiments. He also found a vaccine for anthrax, rabies, and chicken cholera.
Claudius Galen
Galen was a Greek physician who showed the Romans the work of Hippocrates. He showed the Romans how Hippocrates and other Greek doctors used clinical observation by observing his patients and noting their symptoms. Galen believed that illnesses were caused by an imbalance in "the four humors of the body". Galen studied the human body and wrote many books that were used in the Middle Ages.
Robert Koch
Robert Koch was very important in medical history, like Louis Pasteur. While Pasteur was trying to stop and kill germs, Koch was trying to identify which disease was caused by which germ. When studying anthrax, he found a method to identify the germ that was causing the disease. He used his method to find the germ that caused TB. His testing method allowed other researchers to identify other germs.
Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming is famous for discovering the first antibiotic. In 1928, Professor Fleming was cleaning up his lab. He saw a mold growing with some bacteria. The bacteria wouldn't grow near the mold. Fleming thought that the mold must be killing the bacteria. He researched it a bit, but he started researching other things. Ten years later, the substance that was killing the bacteria in the mold, penicillin, was found by Howard Florey and Ernest Chain. It was so useful, it was called the "wonder drug."
Ancient Egyptian Medicine
Some Egyptian beliefs were based on religion, myths, and legends, but they knew much about human anatomy and diseases. Ancient Egyptians had physicians or doctors who took care of the sick, and when they couldn't find a reason for an illness, they believed it was caused by spirits. Egyptian doctors knew that heart rates, pulses, and blood and air were important to the body.
They were the first to study the brain.
Medicine and Ancient Greece
Greece was one of the most influential places in ancient times. Greek doctors were the first to start observing patients, symptoms, and outbreaks. They were one of the first to suggest that diseases had natural causes.
Ancient Rome and Public Health
Rome was a superpower in ancient times, conquering
lands and learning from other cultures. The Romans learned a lot about medicine from Greece, but they only took the information that had the most practical use. They knew that diseases had natural causes, and they made the connection between hygiene and health. Romans were the first to
start a public health program by
installing public toilets,
using clean running water,
encouraging their citizens to keep clean, and improving sewer systems.
Improvement in communication technology has also helped medicine. Communicating who needs help and where outbreaks are is easier and faster today.
Disease Surveillance
Disease surveillance is the collecting of data from populations to monitor whether there are new outbreaks.
The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network is a group of institutions and networks that track new outbreaks. They quickly identify and respond to new outbreaks.
Purpose of
Disease Surveillance
Information collected from disease surveillance is used to observe the spread of diseases, predict how and where the diseases will spread next, and reduce how much damage is caused by the diseases.
Antibiotics are another important medical discovery. "Antibiotics" means "against life." They are chemical agents that are used to kill microbes ("germs"). Most antibiotics are "antibacterials," meaning they kill bacteria. There are many different types of antibiotics: ones that work against lots of microbes, ones that kill specific microbes, etc.
Antibiotic Resistance
Although antibiotics are very effective germ-killers, their main weakness is antibiotic resistance.
Fleming and many others researched the mold and after years, the substance in the mold that was killing the bacteria was found by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain. Named after the penicillium mold, the substance was called penicillin.
Technology and ideas have greatly
contributed to stopping infectious diseases in history. From ancient times to the modern era, technology has helped make our lives easier. Here is a short background history that will help us understand the research question.

Ancient Times
Middle Ages to 1800s
Middle Age Medicine
Medicine did not improve much over the middle ages because medical knowledge was based on religion and belief. The Roman Catholic Church was the main influence on science at that time, and they punished those who opposed them. The church believed diseases were punishments for sin. Doctors thought diseases were caused by an imbalance in the "four humors" of the body, and they thought drinking, vomiting, bloodletting, etc. would fix it. Diagnosis was based on astrology, not science.
16th to 19th Century
The 16th century to the 19th century was a time of medical breakthroughs. Robert Hooke used a microscope to see cells. Edward Jenner invented the first vaccine. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch set the foundation for modern microbiology. X-rays, stethoscopes, and anesthesia were invented, and diseases were classified into groups.
Medicine in the 1900s
Medicine and World War 2
War always pushes science forward, and WW2 pushed medicine forward. Because of the many injuries and infections, researchers worked hard to find new technology and medicine. Many new treatments were found for diseases, and penicillin, the "wonder drug" antibiotic, was first mass produced to treat infected soldiers.
Vaccines are one of the most
important medical discoveries.
A few centuries earlier, the discovery of the first vaccine changed the world.

Beginning of Vaccines
Jenner concluded that the cowpox helped the body defend against smallpox. He tested his theory by injecting pus from a milkmaid with cowpox into a boy named James Phipps, then injecting James with smallpox. James didn't get sick.
Edward Jenner, a British country doctor, was the one who found the first vaccine, for smallpox. Jenner saw that milkmaids got a weak strain of smallpox (cowpox) and didn't get smallpox.
Medicine After 1945
After 1945, DNA was discovered, the treatment of diseases improved, and the first treatment for TB was found. The use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance helped doctors diagnose diseases. Surgery techniques improved, organ transplants are more common now, and the treatment of cancer has improved a lot.
The discovery of penicillin sparked
interest in other researchers and during WW2, many scientists pushed forward to find more antibiotics. Penicillin was the start of the "antibiotic era."
How has technology contributed in stopping infectious diseases?
by Maneesh John
Many influential scientists and researchers have helped improve and discover medical technology. These are just a few of them.
Works Cited
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"Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network." WHO. WHO, n.d. Web. 30 Dec. 2014. <http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/>.
"The History of Antibiotics." HealthyChildren.org. American Academy of Pediatrics, 31 Mar. 2014. Web. 02 Jan. 2015. <http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/treatments/Pages/The-History-of-Antibiotics.aspx>.
McCullers, Jonathan A., and Jeffery D. Dunn. "Advances in Vaccine Technology And Their Impact on Managed Care." PubMed Central, National Library of Medicine. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2008. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730064/>.
NIAID. Syringe and Vaccine. Digital image. Flickr. Yahoo, 5 June 2014. Web. 22 Jan. 2015. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/niaid/14329622976/in/photolist-nQg4F7-p4Eipy-93nCcJ-9SdtBN-77VqAw-896D44-nHup8G-aFTx9R-dyWhLx-dz2HRq-7mhs8c-9uBUbh-dz2KYL-9dq55E-9ieyE5-9iUwb4-aAFBvG-f5ZNXt-hkw4gF-hkw3oP-93jDmt-9nMLkC-drRkCK-gwKE4d-hkuy1R-hkv33d-9BB6wK-p4HgDd-7cWoPz-7cWoMB-9Cgxag-2W2iXP-77qPTy-6jk9td-93nFWJ-93nbW1-dyWeQx-jiE9TV-8LSifK-9sk1PT-93j4dH-7cJSKy-93nFU9-93jy1M-5Yssnt-gwLkdY-jiFCyR-jyNzxj-gwLk8Y-gwLjN9>.
Pan American Health Organization. Edward Jenner. Digital image. Flickr. Yahoo, 28 May 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2015. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/pahowho/9525240640/in/photolist-fvHmbU-ft5wYK-5D4cPs-5LYT7D-49faeP-gAgP64-gAgRmN-gAgdAm-gAgCfM-gAgLBY-gAhaVt-gAgPBz-7Sma6b-eB79pa-4SiRw6-7TTA3Z-6QcTge-nEZpMN-nEZpvq-nZgbxM-gAgfFy-gAgMqk-gAg9sb-gAhfhV-gAgf2h-gAgJt9-gAh9da-gAhdcH-gAh73Z-gAgEW8-gAgc9d-gAh6mi-97TANv-7Sm9wE-9sRqAd-9supBc-gk591F-2r93g-gk4t5W-h8ZX3C-72v57B-9t9SXp-nVrh2Q-fHEYMe-hZ7qHj-hXXoDf-iBTaBU-hYcuBE-7mVGjR-72vmeD>.
Stern, Alexandra Minna, and Howard Markel. "The History Of Vaccines And Immunization: Familiar Patterns, New Challenges." Health Affairs. Project HOPE: The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc., n.d. Web. 31 Dec. 2014. <http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/24/3/611.full>.
"Technology and Medicine." Science Museum. Brought to Life: Exploring the History of Medicine. Science Museum, London, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. <http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/themes/technologies.aspx>.
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Edward Jenner
The First Antibiotic
Due to the overuse of antibiotics, some strains of bacteria develop a resistance to the antibiotic. This has been happening since the discovery of penicillin.
Vaccines work by imitating an infection. The vaccine uses a dead or weakened version of the microbe. Your body responds to the weaker strain of microbe and learns how to recognize and fight back against the real virus.
Most people didn't believe his discovery, but Jenner proved it with multiple trials. Jenner's vaccine was mass produced in Britain, and Jenner put a low price for it so all the people would be able to afford it.
Technology has greatly contributed to medicine
because technology speeds up the pace of
new discoveries and helps improve our lives.
Medicine uses a lot of technology other than
the things I talked about in this Prezi. Vaccines
and antibiotics are only a few of the many things
used in medicine.
Full transcript