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Oxytocin and ADHD

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Matt Jefferson

on 17 September 2013

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Transcript of Oxytocin and ADHD

Matthew Jefferson
Sarah Adams
Ashley Simmons
Seth Yockey
Russell Morgan, Ph.D.
Marsha Dopheide, Ph.D.

Does Administration of Exogenous Oxytocin to Induce Labor Result in Attention-Related Cognitive Impairment in Exposed Offspring?
Oxytocin
Discussion
Oxytocin & ADHD
Produced in hypothalamus

Neuroendocrine role in social cognition

Significant role in labor
Role of Oxytocin in Labor
Potent uterine agonist

Chief induction & augmentation agent
9.5% (1990) 23.4% (2010)

Progression of use from
obstetric tool
to
elective decision

“Costs” of expediting labor
Institute for Safe Medication Practice high-alert medication
Risks of Oxytocin Administration
Uterine hyperstimulation
Compromises fetal oxygen status

Decreased blood flow to intervillous space
= less fetal oxygen available

OXY-increased contractions prevent oxygen restoration

Hypoxic environment
Effects of Fetal Hypoxia
Adverse neurodevelopmental deficits

Complications to medial prefrontal cortex (PFC)




Modify dopamine circuitry in PFC
=
behavioral consequences

...What kind of consequences?
Kurth & Haussman
Relationship between Pitocin administration during labor and ADHD onset

Significant relationship between Pitocin administration and ADHD onset

Pitocin exposure was significant predictor of ADHD onset
67.1% developed ADHD
Goals of Present Study
No experimental basis exploring OXY and ADHD-like behavior

Investigate role of OXY exposure in the onset of behavioral deficits related to hyperactivity and impulsivity

Induce labor in maternal rats with OXY and test those offspring in 3 Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (3CSRTT)
3CSRTT
3CSRTT Task 1-Simulataneous
Visual Discrimination
Tests subjects’ ability to appropriately respond to port after LED cue

Has 15 s to make 1 s response

Correct response = pellet reward

10 s trial interval

1 session = 200 trials (or 120 minutes)

80% criterion performance
3CSRTT Task 2-Visual
Attention Task
Sustained attention task

2 variations
Variable onset delay (0, 3, 6, 9 s)
LED duration (400, 700, or 1000 ms)

25 days

Balanced delay and duration

Increases difficulty of the task = requires perseverance to accurately respond
3CSRTT Task 3-Odor
Distraction Task
Selective attention to irrelevant cue

5 days following VAT

Similar as previous tasks, except…
Delayed onset of relevant cue (2 or 3 secs)
Relevant cue duration (0.5 sec)

Odor presented in ~1/3 trials

Worse performance presumed
Premature Response
Impulsivity
Inaccurate Choice
Nosepoke into non-illuminated port
Omission Error
Sustained attention
Nontrials
Failure to enter alcove
Alcove Latency
Motivation
Response Latency
Information processing speed
Hypotheses
Rats exposed to OXY-induced uterine contractions during labor will demonstrate:

Decreased ability to
sustain attention
, as indicated by an increased number of omission errors in the delayed cue onset phases of the 3CSRTT
Increased
impulsivity
as indicated by increased comission (premature response) errors during the delayed cue onset phases of the 3CSRTT
Impaired choice
reaction time
, indicated by higher response latencies (information processing) in the delayed cue onset phases of the 3CSRTT
Increased
distractibility
(impaired selective attention) when faced with irrelevant odor cues in the 3CSRTT
Does a relationship exist?

Assuming different performance between treatment groups…
OXY exposure has impacted performance

Inadequate fetal oxygen supply caused by oxytocin-induced uterine hyperstimulation?

Direct maternal-fetus placental transport?
No Differences?
Inadequate OXY dose during labor

Missing appropriately timed induction “window”

No link between ADHD and exogenous administration of OXY
Subjects
40 Long Evans for 3CSRTT


Treatment received 5 IU/kg OXY
Injections on gestation day 22

Labor induced within
2 hours for OXY litters
PFC DA
Limbic DA
20 Males
20 Females
10 OXY 10 control
10 OXY 10 control
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Questions?
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