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BIO121-CHP3

Foundations: Tissues and Early Embryology
by

Kimberly Fournier

on 13 September 2013

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Transcript of BIO121-CHP3

PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by Steven Bassett
Southeast Community College, Lincoln, Nebraska

Foundations: Tissues & Early Embryology
Epithelial Tissue
Chapter 3
Types of Epithelial Tissue
Secretion
Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper
Fluid Connective Tissue
Neural Tissue
Adapted by Kimberly Fournier, for BIO121, The University of Rhode Island
Specialization of Epithelial Cells
Microvilli
For absorption and secretion
Stereocilia
Long microvilli, commonly found in the inner ear
Ciliated epithelium
Moves substances over the apical surfaces of the cells
Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Tissue Characteristics (continued)
Arranged in sheets
Composed of one or more layers of cells
Regeneration
Cells are continuously replaced via cell reproduction
Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Tissue Characteristics (continued)
Attachment
Basal layer is attached to the basal lamina
Avascularity
Do not consist of blood vessels
Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Tissue Characteristics
Cellularity
Cells are bound close together
No intercellular space
Polarity
Have an exposed apical surface
Have an attached basal surface
Epithelial Tissue
Figure 3.3a Epithelia and Basal Laminae
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epithelium
Three factors involved in maintenance
Intercellular connections
Attachment to the basal lamina
Epithelial maintenance and renewal is self-perpetuated
Epithelial Tissue
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Provides physical protection
Controls permeability
Provides sensation
Produces secretions
Epithelial Tissue
Figure 3.2b Polarity of Epithelial Cells
Figure 3.2a Polarity of Epithelial Cells
Figure 3.3b Epithelia and Basal Laminae
Glandular Epithelia Classification
Simple glands
Do not have branching ducts
Compound glands
Have various branching ducts
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular Epithelia
Many epithelia are mixed with gland cells
Types of glands
Serous glands: secrete watery fluids rich in enzymes
Mucous glands: secrete glycoproteins (mucins) that absorb water to produce mucus
Mixed exocrine glands: contain both serous and mucous secretions
Epithelial Tissue
Transitional Epithelium
Consists of many layers
Consists of a combination of cuboidal and “odd” shaped cells
Location
Urinary bladder
Function
Ability to stretch extensively
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Location
Pharynx, epiglottis, mammary glands, salivary glands
Function
Protection
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Location
Ducts of sweat glands
Function
Secretion, absorption
Epithelial Tissue
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Consists of very delicate cells
Location
Lining body cavities, the heart, the blood vessels
Function
Reduces friction
Absorbs and secretes material
Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Tissue Cells
Squamous cells
Thin, flat cells / “squished” nuclei
Cuboidal cells
Cube-shaped cells / centered, round nucleus
Columnar cells
Longer than they are wide / nucleus near the base
Transitional cells
Mixture of cells / nuclei appear to be scattered
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular Epithelia (continued)
Endocrine glands
Secretions enter into the blood or lymph
Exocrine glands
Secretions travel through ducts to the epithelial surface
Epithelial Tissue
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Nucleus situated at different levels
Location
Nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi
Function
Protection, secretion
Epithelial Tissue
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Location
Lining: stomach, intestines, uterine tubes
Function
Secretion, absorption, protection
Epithelial Tissue
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Location
Thyroid gland, ducts, kidney tubules
Function
Secretion, absorption
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Location
Surface of skin
Lines: mouth, esophagus, anus, vagina
Function
Protection
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular Epithelia
Modes of Secretion
Merocrine secretion
Apocrine secretion
Holocrine secretion
Epithelial Tissue
Classification of Epithelia
Simple
Epithelium has only one layer of cells
Stratified
Epithelium has two or more layers of cells
Epithelial Tissue
Figure 3.5a Histology of Cuboidal Epithelia
Figure 3.4a Histology of Squamous Epithelia
Figure 3.9 A Structural Classification of Simple and Compound Exocrine Glands (Part 2 of 2)
Figure 3.6a Histology of Columnar Epithelia
Figure 3.5b Histology of Cuboidal Epithelia
Figure 3.4b Histology of Squamous Epithelia
Figure 3.7a Histology of Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar and Transitional Epithelia
Figure 3.6b Histology of Columnar Epithelia
Figure 3.9 A Structural Classification of Simple and Compound Exocrine Glands (Part 1 of 2)
Figure 3.7b Histology of Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar and Transitional Epithelia
Modes of Secretion
Holocrine Secretion
Secretions released upon bursting of the glandular cells
Example:
Cells of the sebaceous glands
Epithelial Tissue
Modes of Secretion
Apocrine Secretion
Secretions released via the loss of cytoplasm
Example:
Cells of the mammary glands for milk secretion
Epithelial Tissue
Holocrine secretion occurs as superficial gland
cells break apart. Continued secretion involves the
replacement of these cells through the mitotic
division of underlying stem cells.
Stem cell
Cell division replaces
lost cells
Cells produce secretion,
increasing in size
Cells burst, releasing
cytoplasmic contents
Hair follicle
Sebaceous
gland
Hair
Figure 3.10c Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion
Figure 3.10b Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion
Figure 3.10a Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion
Hyaline Cartilage Tissue (details)
Location
Between bones at the joints
Tracheal cartilage rings
Function
Flexible support
Reduces friction
Matrix
Gel
Supporting Connective Tissue
Supporting Connective Tissue
Cartilage and Bone
Provide a strong framework that supports rest of body
Supporting Connective Tissue
Lymph (details)
Location
Lymphoid system
Lymphocytes
Develop into T cells and B cells (for example)
Function
Involved with the immune system
Fluid Connective Tissue
Blood (details)
Location: circulatory system
Erythrocytes
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes
Fight infections
Platelets
Blood clotting
Matrix
Liquid (plasma)
Fluid Connective Tissue
Fluid Connective Tissue
Blood
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Platelets
Plasma
Fluid Connective Tissue
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue (details)
Location
Nerve and muscle sheaths
Function
Provides strength
Matrix
Fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Dense Regular Connective Tissue (details)
Location
Tendons, aponeuroses, ligaments
Elastic tissue
Function
Tendons: connect muscle to bone
Aponeuroses: connect muscle to muscle or covers entire muscle
Ligaments: connect bone to bone
Elastic: stabilizes the vertebrae
Matrix
Fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Reticular Tissue (details)
Location
Liver, spleen, kidney, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix, bone marrow
Function
Supporting framework
Matrix
Fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Adipose Tissue (details)
Location
Hypodermis
Buttocks, surrounds organs
Function
Cushion
Insulation
Matrix
Fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Areolar Tissue (details)
Location
Deep dermis
Between muscles
Function
Connects skin to muscle
Matrix
Fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Connective Tissue Proper
Loose fibers
Areolar tissue
Adipose tissue
Reticular tissue
Dense fibers
Dense regular
Dense irregular
Elastic
Connective Tissue Proper
Classification of Connective Tissue
Connective tissue proper
Has a matrix of fibers (loose fibers and dense fibers)
Fluid connective tissue
Has a matrix of liquid (blood and lymph)
Supporting connective tissue
Has a matrix consisting of a gel or a solid (cartilage and bone)
Connective Tissues
Functions of Connective Tissue
Establishing the structural framework of the body
Transporting fluid and dissolved materials
Protecting organs
Supporting, surrounding, and connecting other tissues
Storing energy
Defending the body from microorganisms
Connective Tissues
All connective tissues have three main components:
Specialized cells
Extracellular protein fibers
Matrix
The matrix is the collective term for the extracellular component of any connective tissue that is made of protein fibers and the ground substance
Connective Tissues
Cartilage
Types of Cartilage:
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Fibrous cartilage
Supporting Connective Tissue
Figure 3.14c Histology of Loose Connective Tissues
Figure 3.14b Histology of Loose Connective Tissues
LM  500
Matrix
Chondrocytes
in lacunae
FUNCTIONS: Provides stiff but somewhat flexible support; reduces
friction between bony surfaces
LOCATIONS: Between tips of ribs and bones of sternum; covering bone
surfaces at synovial joints; supporting larynx (voice box), trachea, and
bronchi; forming part of nasal septum
Hyaline cartilage. Note the translucent matrix and the absence of prominent
fibers.
Hyaline Cartilage
Figure 3.18a Histology of the Three Types of Cartilage
Figure 3.15c Histology of Dense Connective Tissues
Figure 3.15a Histology of Dense Connective Tissues
Figure 3.15b Histology of Dense Connective Tissues
Figure 3.14a Histology of Loose Connective Tissues
Figure 3.11 A Classification of Connective Tissues
Figure 3.16 Formed Elements of the Blood
Elastic Cartilage Tissue (details)
Location
Auricle of the ear
Function
Flexible support
Matrix
Gel
Supporting Connective Tissue
FUNCTIONS: Provides support, but tolerates
distortion without damage and returns to
original shape
LOCATIONS: Auricle of external ear; epiglottis;
auditory canal; cuneiform cartilages of larynx
Elastic fibers
in matrix
Chondrocyte
in lacuna
LM  358
Elastic cartilage. The closely packed elastic fibers are visible between
the chondrocytes.
Elastic Cartilage
Figure 3.18b Histology of the Three Types of Cartilage
Fibrous Cartilage Tissue (details)
Location
Pads within the knee joints
Pubic symphysis
Function
Resists compression
Matrix
Gel
Supporting Connective Tissue
FUNCTIONS: Resists compression; prevents bone-to-bone
contact; limits relative movement
LOCATIONS: Pads within knee joint; between pubic bones of
pelvis; intervertebral discs
Fibrous
matrix
Chondrocytes
LM  400
Fibrous cartilage. The collagen fibers are extremely dense, and the
chondrocytes are relatively far apart.
Fibrous Cartilage
Figure 3.18c Histology of the Three Types of Cartilage
Bone
Location
Skeletal system
Function
Support and strength
Matrix
Solid (lamellae)
Supporting Connective Tissue
Bone (details)
Made of osteons
Osteons consist of:
Central canal
Osteocytes
Lacunae
Canaliculi
Matrix of lamellae
Supporting Connective Tissue
See Figure 3.19
Supporting Connective Tissue
Membranes
Connective tissue creates the internal framework of the body
Layers of connective tissue connect organs with the rest of the body
Layers of connective tissue are called fascia
Superficial fascia
Deep fascia
Subserous fascia
The Connective Tissue Framework of the Body
Figure 3.20b Membranes
Four Types of Membranes (continued)
Cutaneous membrane: makes up the skin
Thick and waterproof
Synovial membrane: lines the joint cavities
Produces synovial fluid that reduces friction within the joints
Membranes
Four Types of Membranes
Mucous membrane: lines digestive and respiratory tract
Coated with mucus secretions
Has connection to the exterior of the body
Serous membrane: lines pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities
Produces transudate to reduce friction
Membranes
Membranes
Epithelia and connective tissue combine to form membranes
Each membrane consists of:
Sheet of epithelial cells
An underlying connective tissue
Membranes
Figure 3.20c Membranes
Figure 3.20a Membranes
Figure 3.21 The Fasciae
Synovial membranes
line joint cavities and
produce the fluid within
the joint.
Synovial
membrane
Bone
Epithelium
Areolar tissue
Adipocytes
Capillary
Capsule
Synovial fluid
Articular (hyaline) tissue
Figure 3.20d Membranes
Muscle Tissue
Three types of muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle
Has striations
Smooth muscle
Ends of the cells are pointy
Cardiac muscle
Has intercalated discs
Muscle Tissue
Skeletal muscle
Muscles that move the skeleton
Voluntary control
Smooth muscle
Muscles that line the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and blood vessels
Involuntary control
Cardiac muscle
Found in the myometrium of the heart
Muscles cells that contract rhythmically
Muscle Tissue
Figure 3.22b Histology of Muscle Tissue
Figure 3.22c Histology of Muscle Tissue
Figure 3.22a Histology of Muscle Tissue
Figure 3.23a Histology of Neural Tissue
Neural Tissue
Specialized to conduct electrical signals through the body
Two types of neural cells
Neurons are the cells that actually transmit the impulse
Neuroglia are the supporting cells of the neural tissue; these cells protect the neurons
Neural Tissue
Figure 3.23b Histology of Neural Tissue
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