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# Cosmology

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#### Transcript of Cosmology

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Newtonian Cosmology Brief History Born prematurely and after the death of his father, on Christmas Day in England in 1642.

His talent was discovered by his uncle, and thus made it to Trinity College in Cambridge.

Began to discover/create things such as calculus and basic design of telescopes, 3 laws of motion and development of the law of universal gravitation.

All his ideas became the basis for all cosmological models! Govern Earth Newton was the first person to realize the physical laws that govern lives on Earth are same as those that govern stars and planets.

His ideas helped people understand that we are part of a broader universe "imagined" by mathematics.

For over 2000 years people believed Aristotle ideas of cosmology but Newton was able to disprove that concept and illustrate that the same laws that explains falling object on Earth applies to the orbit of the moon. Orbit the Moon "In brief, Newton explains orbital motion by asking his reader to imagine a cannonball fired from the top of a mountain, in a direction that is parallel to the ground. The cannonball follows what at first seems to be a parabolic path, but in reality is an elliptical path. However, before the object can complete its orbit, it hits the surface of the Earth. Eventually, with more and more gunpowder, the ellipse is large enough to encircle the Earth and the cannonball goes into orbit. With additional powder the next cannonball goes further, and eventually it goes into orbit. Newton showed that his theory not only explained orbits in a qualitative way, but also predicted the period of the Moon’s orbit—the time needed to circle Earth once—given its distance from Earth, which was known at the time."

http://cosmology.carnegiescience.edu/timeline/1687/orbit-of-the-moon

Newtonian Telescope "Newton’s studies on light and optics showed that a piece of glass would bend the light of some colors more than others, so that any telescope using a lens would distort the image. Although he may have heard about the idea of telescopes built from curved mirrors before, he was the first to design and build such a telescope. It used a shiny metal mirror, and a small secondary mirror that diverted the cone of light to the side where an observer could view it without getting in the way of the incoming beam of light. A replica of his telescope is shown at right."

http://cosmology.carnegiescience.edu/timeline/1687/newtonian-telescope Three laws of Motion and Law of Gravitation - 1687 Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

The principle that two particles attract each other with forces directly proportional to the product of their masses divided by the square of the distance between them Newtonian Cosmology Newton's theory of gravity set the stage for physical cosmology, a study of the universe based on the idea of laws of physics that applied everywhere throughout space, and it gave rise to the idea of a clockwork universe, although we now know the universe is so complex that it is far from deterministic. Newton imagined the universe as infinite and filled with stars in random motion. This is essentially a static universe. Newton's rational was as follows. If the universe had an edge, then the stars near the edge would feel a greater force inside than outside where there are no stars, and so the stars would move inwards. Thus a universe with an edge would be forced to be in motion and collapse. The only way around this is to have an infinite universe filled with stars. Of course, an infinite universe has infinite gravity. Sources: http://www.teachastronomy.com/astropedia/text/2-Newtons-Law-of-Gravity

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec03.html.

http://www.spaceandmotion.com/cosmology-history-astronomy-universe-space.htm

http://ooo.aip.de/People/msteinmetz/classes/Cosmology_201/PDF/Lecture_07.pdf

Full transcriptHis talent was discovered by his uncle, and thus made it to Trinity College in Cambridge.

Began to discover/create things such as calculus and basic design of telescopes, 3 laws of motion and development of the law of universal gravitation.

All his ideas became the basis for all cosmological models! Govern Earth Newton was the first person to realize the physical laws that govern lives on Earth are same as those that govern stars and planets.

His ideas helped people understand that we are part of a broader universe "imagined" by mathematics.

For over 2000 years people believed Aristotle ideas of cosmology but Newton was able to disprove that concept and illustrate that the same laws that explains falling object on Earth applies to the orbit of the moon. Orbit the Moon "In brief, Newton explains orbital motion by asking his reader to imagine a cannonball fired from the top of a mountain, in a direction that is parallel to the ground. The cannonball follows what at first seems to be a parabolic path, but in reality is an elliptical path. However, before the object can complete its orbit, it hits the surface of the Earth. Eventually, with more and more gunpowder, the ellipse is large enough to encircle the Earth and the cannonball goes into orbit. With additional powder the next cannonball goes further, and eventually it goes into orbit. Newton showed that his theory not only explained orbits in a qualitative way, but also predicted the period of the Moon’s orbit—the time needed to circle Earth once—given its distance from Earth, which was known at the time."

http://cosmology.carnegiescience.edu/timeline/1687/orbit-of-the-moon

Newtonian Telescope "Newton’s studies on light and optics showed that a piece of glass would bend the light of some colors more than others, so that any telescope using a lens would distort the image. Although he may have heard about the idea of telescopes built from curved mirrors before, he was the first to design and build such a telescope. It used a shiny metal mirror, and a small secondary mirror that diverted the cone of light to the side where an observer could view it without getting in the way of the incoming beam of light. A replica of his telescope is shown at right."

http://cosmology.carnegiescience.edu/timeline/1687/newtonian-telescope Three laws of Motion and Law of Gravitation - 1687 Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

The principle that two particles attract each other with forces directly proportional to the product of their masses divided by the square of the distance between them Newtonian Cosmology Newton's theory of gravity set the stage for physical cosmology, a study of the universe based on the idea of laws of physics that applied everywhere throughout space, and it gave rise to the idea of a clockwork universe, although we now know the universe is so complex that it is far from deterministic. Newton imagined the universe as infinite and filled with stars in random motion. This is essentially a static universe. Newton's rational was as follows. If the universe had an edge, then the stars near the edge would feel a greater force inside than outside where there are no stars, and so the stars would move inwards. Thus a universe with an edge would be forced to be in motion and collapse. The only way around this is to have an infinite universe filled with stars. Of course, an infinite universe has infinite gravity. Sources: http://www.teachastronomy.com/astropedia/text/2-Newtons-Law-of-Gravity

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec03.html.

http://www.spaceandmotion.com/cosmology-history-astronomy-universe-space.htm

http://ooo.aip.de/People/msteinmetz/classes/Cosmology_201/PDF/Lecture_07.pdf