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Chapter 16 Reconstruction
Transcript of Chapter 16 Reconstruction
A. Lincoln's 10% Plan
E. The Klu Klux Klan
II. Freedmen's Bureau
1. Describe the postwar challenges that faced the nation.
2. Compare and Contrast President Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction with the plan proposed by Congress.
3. Identify the goals of the Freedmen's Bureau.
4. Describe the immediate impact of Lincoln's assassination.
I. Preparing for Reunion
-South was in ruins
-What would happen to people that had been freed
-Homeless refugees without food, shelter, and work
1. Lincoln wanted to reunite as quickly as possible.
2. Once 10% of a state's voters swore an oath of loyalty to the US, voters could organize a new state government.
a. the gov't would have to declare an end to slavery and then it could send members to Congress and take part in the legislature again.
B. The Wade-Davis Bill
1. Congress was much stricter
2. 50% of voters must sign the loyalty oath
a. anyone who voluntarily fought for the Confederacy was barred from voting for delegates
b. Lincoln would not sign this bill so it never became law
3. Weak v. Strict which wold keep the South's support?
1. the F.B. set up schools to teach freedmen to read and write.
2. New schools were educating both African Americans and Whites in large numbers in the South who had lacked many schools prior to the war.
B. Defending Freedmen
1. Helped them find jobs and resolved disputes
2. Set up it's own courts
III. Lincoln is Murdered
Lincoln did not get a chance to see his plans for peace and reuniting the Union come together
1. Lincoln was shot and killed on April 14, 1865...just 5 days after Lee's official surrender
a. John Wilkes Booth came behind Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and fired a single shot into the back of Lincoln's head. The President would die a few hours later.
2. Booth was eventually hunted down and shot. 4 others were also executed for their parts in planning the assassination
3. Vice President Andrew Johnson took over as President
a. he expressed bitterness towards the Confederates and was expected to by much more strict than Lincoln.
16.2 The Battle Over Reconstruction
1. Explain why conflicts developed over plans for Reconstruction.
2. Describe the changes in the South brought about by Radical Reconstruction.
3. Explain how Congress tried to remove President Johnson from office.
4. Describe how the Ku Klux Klan and other secret societies tried to prevent African Americans from exercising their rights.
I. Growing Conflict
A. The 13th Amendment
1. This would abolish slavery and forced labor.
B. Johnson's Plan
1. Confederates could rejoin and form new gov'ts if they abolished slavery and ratified the 13th Amendment.
2. Congress quickly rejected Johnson's plan
a. too lenient
3. Something must be done about *black codes.
II. The 14th Amendment
-The President and Congress did not agree about the plan for Reconstruction.
1. Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and also one extending the Freedmen's Bureau.
a. Congress overturned both vetoes
2. Passed the 14th Amendment that all people born or naturalized in the US are citizens...states cannot "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; not deny to any person...the equal protection of the laws."
III. Radical Reconstruction
*Southerners react with violence. Leading to even harsher legislation by Congress
A. Radicals in Charge
1. Any states that did not ratify the 14th Amendment had their govt's removed and military rule took over
B. Time of Hope
1. African Americans for the first time were active in politics.
2. While this time is called radical Reconstruction it was a time where many rights were extended and things increased in fairness for many Americans.
3. New groups formed in the South...
ex. *scalawags and *carpetbaggers
C. Target President Johnson
1. Congress pushed to *impeach Johnson
a. failed by 1 vote
D. The Election of 1868
1. U.S. Grant won
2. 500,000 African Americans voted
a. Grant won 26/34 states
E. 15th Amendment
1. States could not deny African American men the right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous servitude.
Because some whites were shut out of power they resorted to violence.
-The Ku Klux Klan is one secret society that rode by night using violence to intimidate African Americans and white Republicans.
-They took hundreds of lives each year.
16.3 The End of Reconstruction
1. Explain why support for Reconstruction declined.
2. Describe how African Americans in the South lost many newly gained rights.
3. Describe the sharecropping system and how it trapped many in a cycle of poverty.
4. Identify the signs that the South began to develop a stronger economy by the 1880s.
I. Reconstruction's Conclusion
A. Self-Rule for the South
1. A movement started for Southern states to regain control and for military rule to end.
a. secret societies and terror played a huge role
B. The Election of 1876
1. Reconstruction ends with the election
2. Controversy over the election
a. votes were in question
b. Hayes promised to end Reconstruction
II. African Americans Lose Rights
1. Poll Tax
a. tax to be paid to vote
2. Literacy Test
a. if a person could not read or write they could not vote
b. they had to read a section of the US Constitution and explain it
3. Grandfather Clause
a. literacy test would be void if the voters grandfather could vote prior to 1867
b. African Americans could not vote until 1868
Jim Crow Laws
2. Separate but "Equal"
III. Cycle of Poverty
-many freedmen did this after emancipation
-the system was flawed and put people in a cycle of debt
IV. Industrial Growth
1. Industry began to grow in the South in the 1880s.
2. Cotton production quickly rebounded
a. textile industries grew
3. Development of plentiful resources
a. iron, timber, oil