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Population Dynamics

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Lauren Jennison

on 8 February 2018

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Transcript of Population Dynamics

Population Dynamics
Population
- group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area
Population Density
- number of individuals per unit area
Characteristics of Populations
Demography
- study of information about human populations
Human Population
Renewable Resources
- resources that can regenerate if they are alive, or can be replaced by biogeochemical cycles (ex.: water, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus cycles) if they are non-living
not necessarily unlimited - can easily become limited by overuse (
ex.: trees and water
)
Nonrenewable Resources
- resources that cannot be replenished by natural processes
ex.: fossil fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
Biodiversity
- the total of all the variety of organisms in a specific area - includes:
Ecosystem Diversity
- variety of habitats, communities and ecological processes in the living world
Species Diversity
- number of different species in the biosphere (approximately 1.5 million species are accounted for)
Genetic Diversity
- sum total of all different forms of genetic information carried by all living organisms
Biodiversity
If a population has abundant space and food, and is protected from predators and disease, the population will grow exponentially
Exponential Growth
- occurs when individuals of a population reproduce at a constant rate (see graph of bacteria growth in next slide)
j-shaped
Logistic Growth
- as resources become less available, the population growth rate slows or stops (see next slide)
s-shaped
Carrying Capacity
- the number of organisms of one species that can be supported in an environment
Carrying Capacity
Density-Dependent Limiting Factors:
factors related to density of a population
Density-Independent Limiting Factors:
affects population no matter the size
Competition
- organisms compete for food, water, space, sunlight and essentials
Predation
- population control caused by predator-prey relationship
Parasitism and disease
- robs organisms of nourishment
Unusual weather
- ex.: drought
Seasonal cycles
Natural disasters
- volcanic eruptions, fires, floods
Human activities
- clear-cutting forests, damming rivers
Bacteria Population Study Worksheet
Birth rate
- number of live births per 1,000 people in a year
Death rate
- number of deaths per 1,000 people in a year
Birth rate - Death rate = Population Growth Rate (PGR)
Age Structure
- refers to the number of people at each different age level - info is shown in age graph
When large amount of population is children, the population is experiencing rapid growth.
When there are more adults than children, the population is declining.
When the amount of people in different age levels is equal, the population is stable
Human activities that affect the biosphere are:
Hunting and Gathering
- scientists hypothesize that humans who arrived to North America 12,000 years ago caused a major mass extinction of animals (i.e. wooly mammoth, saber-tooth tigers)
Agriculture
- humans began practice of farming, which included growing fruits, veggies and grains, and raising animals
Industrial Growth
- human society was transformed by the Industrial Revolution which added machines and factories to civilization during the 1800s (pollution).
Urban Development
- as cities became crowded, people moved to suburbs, which causes stress on the plant and animal populations
Population Percentage Data Worksheet Example Part A
Population Percentage Data Worksheet Example Part B
Sustainable development
- a way of using natural resources without depleting them or causing long-term environmental harm
Biodiversity brings stability to an ecosystem - species depend on one another for survival.
Also provides humans with foods, industrial products and medicines.
Threats to Biodiversity
Extinction
- occurs when a species disappears from all or part of its range
Endangered species
- species whose population size is declining, losing genetic diversity
Habitat Fragmentation
- land development separates ecosystems into pieces cutting off species from their habitat
Habitat Degradation
- damage to habitats caused by air, water or land pollution
Invasive Species
- species introduced to new habitats that lack parasites or predators for population control
Conservation of Biodiversity
Habitat Corridors
- protected strips of land to allow organisms to move freely from one wilderness area to another
Reintroduction Programs
- taking endangered species, breeding and raising them in protected habitats
Sustainable Use
- lets people use resources without harming the ecosystem
Global Invaders
Global Invaders
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