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Types and models of curriculum development

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Yuniifayati Wijdan

on 11 April 2015

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Transcript of Types and models of curriculum development

Models of Curriculum Development
What is curriculum? A design plan for learning that requires a purposeful organization, sequencing, management of the interaction among teachers, the students, and the content.

The components are content, assessment, teaching strategies, learning activities, grouping and pacing, products, resources, extension activities, and differentiation.

What is model? Curriculum design that is developed to meet unique needs, context, and purposes.
The Saylor and Alexander Model
Types and models of curriculum development
1. The Tyler Model
the special attention of this model is the planning phases as seen on this picture below;
- Gather data from three sources; society, subject matter, and learner to determine numerous objectives.
- Refine them by filtering them through two screens; philosophy and psychology to create precise objectives.
- Select some learning experience by considering the interaction between the learners and their environment.

THe taba model
It is an inductive/teacher/grass root approach --> Curriculum should be designed by teachers considering students' needs.
It is a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad educational goals and related specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school center.
The oliva model
Oliva states that a model curriculum should be simple, comprehensive and systematic.
It is composed of 12 components, namely:

1: Philosophical formulation, target, mission and vision of the institution
2: Analysis of the needs of the community where the school is located
3 and 4: General purpose and special purpose curricul
5: Organizing the design and implement curriculum
6 and 7: Describe the curriculum in the form of the formulation of general objectives and specific learning
8; Define the learning strategy
9: Preliminary studies on possible strategies or assessment techniques to be used
10: Implement the learning strategy
11 and 12: Evaluation of learning and curriculum evaluation
Oliva recognized the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout our society.
TYPES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
1. Overt, explicit, or written curriculum; written as part of formal instruction of schooling experiences.

--> a curriculum document, texts, films, and supportive teaching materials that are overtly chosen to support the intentional instructional agenda of a school.

--> Thus, the overt curriculum is usually confined to those written understandings and directions formally designated and reviewed by administrators, curriculum directors and teachers, often collectively.
2. Societal curriculum (or social curricula)
--> massive, ongoing, informal curriculum of family, peer groups, neighborhoods, churches organizations, occupations, mas, media and other socializing forces that “educate” all of us throughout our lives.

--> EXPANDS TO social media (YouTube; Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest, etc) and how it actively helps create new perspectives.
3. The hidden or covert curriculum
--> implied by the very structure and nature of schools, much of what revolves around daily or established routines.

Examples --> the messages and lessons derived from the mere organization of schools, an annual schedule t, disciplined messages where concentration equates to student behaviors were they are sitting up straight and are continually quiet; students getting in and standing in line silently; students quietly raising their hands to be called on; the endless competition for grades, and so on.


4. null curriculum
--> is simply that which is not taught in schools.
5. Phantom curriculum
The messages prevalent in and through exposure to any type of media. These components and messages play a major part in the enculturation of students into the predominant meta-culture, or in acculturating students into narrower or generational subcultures.

6. Concomitant curriculum
What is taught, or emphasized at home, or those experiences that are part of a family’s experiences, or related experiences sanctioned by the family.
7. Rhetorical curriculum
Elements from the rhetorical curriculum are comprised from ideas offered by policymakers, school officials, administrators, professionals or politicians.
8. Curriculum-in-use
The formal curriculum (written or overt) comprises those things in textbooks, and content and concepts in the district curriculum guides. However, those “formal” elements are frequently not taught. The curriculum-in-use is the actual curriculum that is delivered and presented by each teacher.
9. Received curriculum Those things that students actually take out of classroom; those concepts and content that are truly learned and remembered.
10. The internal curriculum
Processes, content, knowledge combined with the experiences and realities of the learner to create new knowledge. While educators should be aware of this curriculum, they have little control over the internal curriculum since it is unique to each student. Educators can explore this curricula by using instructional assessments like “exit slips,” reflective exercises, or debriefing discussions to see what students really remember from a lesson. It is often very enlightening and surprising to find out what has meaning for learners and what does not.
11. Electronic curriculum
Those lessons learned through searching the Internet for information, or through using e-forms of communication.

The implications --> needs to include lessons on how to be wise consumers of information, how to critically appraise the accuracy and correctness of e-information, as well as how to determine the reliability of electronic sources.
A Task of curriculum and material development course
Compiled by: Wiwik S, Yogi Gumilar, dan Yuni Ifayati
Students of UHAMKA Graduate School
Class of 2015
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