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Transcript of HISTORY
A Story of Friendship & Betrayal
Evidence suggests people were cultivating plants for the manufacture of wine as early as 5400-5000 BC.
The world's oldest known winery is located in a cave in Armenia (~4100 BC.)
Around 3100 BC, beer was for workers and wine for elites.
Beer was the beverage of choice among the Babylonians and as early as 2700BC.
ANCIENT MIDDLE EAST
Wine clearly appeared as a finished product in Egyptian pictographs around 4000 B.C.
Egyptians made at least 17 types of beer and at least 24 varieties of wine
Osiris, the god of wine, was worshiped across all of Egypt. Most other gods had only regional or familial influence.
Beer and wine were regularly offered to the gods, and used as a form of payment.
By 1000BC. alcohol was consumed in some form in most known cultures.
Knowledge of viticulture, brewing techniques, and the uses for alcoholic products rapidly spread Westward during the time of the Roman Empire.
The spread of Christianity and of viticulture occurred in Western Europe at the same time, through very similar means.
THE MIDDLE AGES
Viticulture & brewing was maintained by monastery monks, who were among the few with the education, resources, and security to do so in the turbulent Middle Ages..
Some wine trade did continue despite deteriorating roads and international relations.
Beer was still commonly used for tithing, commerce, and taxes.
Viticulture continued to flourish in Uzbekistan until the spread of Islam ~700 AD.
Islamic Prophet Muhammad directed his followers to abstain from alcohol,25 but promises them that there will be “rivers of wine” awaiting them in the gardens of heaven (Surah 47.15 of the Qur’an)
Alcohol has been made and used by humans since before recorded history
Some anthropologists suggest humans transitioned from nomadic to agrarian societies for the purpose of cultivating the ingredients of beer
Beer may even have preceded bread as a staple of the human diet
Alcohol and its production appears to have been independently discovered in many cases across the globe...
Chemical analysis of pottery found in Jiahu, in northern China dating 7000-6600 B.C., gives evidence that the containers had contained a fermented drink made with rice, honey, grapes, and hawthorn berries...
At the time of Marco Polo (1254-1324 B.C.)
alcohol was regularly consumed by people
of all status and also was a major source of
income for the treasury.
Between 1100BC and 1400AD laws against
making wine were enacted and repealed at
least forty-one times
by various authorities.
Imperial edict set clear norms and policies about
the importance of moderation, and the acceptability of
GREECE & ROME
The art of wine making reached the Hellenic Peninsula ~2000BC.
Many norms and traditions regarding alcohol can be traced back to the Greek and Roman cultures.
Greeks landed at the mouth of the Rhone, and taught the French to prune their vines to improve yield. ~600BC.
Italian wine was produced for both domestic consumption & trade. ~200BC.
By 100BC. wine was the daily drink of both rich & poor
There is history of wine making in Luxembourg since the ancient Romans
The usefulness of hops in brewing was discovered sometime before 800AD., but its use did not become widespread until the 9th century AD.
The most important development regarding alcohol throughout the Middle Ages was that of distillation.
Beginning ~14 century AD., the 'Little Ice Age' and the 'Black Death' reduced population by as much as 82% and critically impacted agricultural production across Europe.
“Christian Europe emerged from the Dark Ages as a heavy-drinking culture. Alcohol had the reputation of a saint. No medical prescription was complete without it, nor, indeed, was any meal. Mothers brewed ale for their children; alchemists used spirits in their search for the secrets of how to turn other substances into gold; priests held wine aloft in chalices and declared it to be the blood of Christ; and drunkenness, especially during the barbarian festivals that had been adopted by Mother Church, was regarded as a natural, indeed blameless, condition.
-Gately, Ian. Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. NY: Gotham, 2008, p. 76.
From 1400-1600AD., hops, distillation, and other alcoholic innovations such as whiskey, spread through Europe and arrived in the Americas...
European cultures developed various cultural and legal traditions regarding alcohol which closely resemble those we have today.
THE EARLY AMERICAS
“The Spanish found not one but a multitude of drinking cultures in their American possessions. These were concentrated in Middle or Mesoamerica, between Mexico and Panama, and were as diverse among themselves as they were different from Spanish custon. Mesoamerican civilizations were perhaps the most ingenious in history in identifying potential sources of alcohol. They fermented cacti and their fruits, maize and its stalks, the sap of a good two-dozen species of agave, honey, sasparilla, the seed pods of the mesquite tree, hog plums, and the fruit and bark of various other trees. The ubitiquity of alcohol was remarked upon by the conquitadores, who observed that in their new domains ‘up to now no tribe has been found which is content to drink only water.’”
-Gately, Ian. Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. NY: Gotham, 2008, pp. 95-96.
“The Aztecs appear to have had the strictest drinking laws in history outside Islam.”
"...many of the native types of alcoholic drink fell out of use after the Spanish conquest, one in particular remained common and grew in popularity. This was pulquey, the fermented juice of the maguey....”
Gately, Iain. Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. NY: Gotham, 2008, p. 97.
The first grape vines in the Americas were planted by Hernan Cortes in Mexico ~1522AD.
Christopher Columbus transplanted sugar cane from the Canary Islands at St. Croix in the Virgin Islands, which later turned to a profitable rum industry.
RISE OF TEMPERANCE
“As early as the middle of the fifteenth century some attempts were made to bring about ‘Sunday closing’” in England. This included not only alcoholic beverages but also other sales as well.
Bickerdyke, John. The Curiosities of Ale and Beer: An Entertaining History. London: Spring Books, 1965, p 115.
Through the 18th century there was growing concern in Europe over the negative effects of drunkenness, which was reflected by a number of changing legal ordinances...
Rum was a major product in the "Triangle Trade." Rum was traded for West African slaves, who were traded for more molasses to be made into rum.
Distilling industries relied on the expansion of sugar production in the Caribbean.
Distilled drinks were found throughout the West and were introduced to the Americas in the 16th century.
Except for several tribes in the Southwest, North American Natives had no alcoholic products before their introduction by Europeans.
When the Puritans loaded the Mayflower, there was more beer on board than water.
Cultivation of hops began in Virginia in 1648
Boston had its first rum distillery..
Soon almost every major town from Massachusetts to the Carolinas had a rum distillery.
Brewing was one of the earliest industries in America.
1540- Brandenberg prohibited brewing
and drinking of Sundays & holy days.
1557- The Nuremberg council complained
of the daily accidents caused by drunkenness
1580's - Spread of Puritanism brought increasingly negative attitudes toward drunkenness
1599 - A German professor criticized the drinking of toasts, noting that it often resulted in problems such as the fighting of duels...
1602- English Parliment passed “The Act to Repress the Odious and Loathsome Sin of Drunkenness.”
1630- Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts attempted to outlaw all alcoholic beverages in Boston
1673- A petition was made to English Parliament for legislation to prohibit brandy, coffee, mum, tea and chocolate “for theese greatly hinder the consumption of Barley, Malt, and Wheat, the product of our land.”
1720- The prohibition of spirits was attempted in the colony of Georgia, but failed.
1750~1800- Some "sobriety circles" were formed in North American Native tribes, which were later a basis for larger temperance organizations.
TEMPERANCE - POST 1800
Numerous problem came of drunkenness amongst industrialization, urbanization, and social changes throughout the 1800's... While drunkenness was a non-issue on the farm, drunkenness in the confines of growing cities and factories proved problematic.
1818- Temperance societies could be found forming anywhere Protestantism is found
1880's- Several U.S. states adopted prohibition
ALCOHOL AT 1900
In 1900, famous WCTU member Carry Nation began destroying saloons with her hatchet. Temperance movements continued to gain influence into the era of prohibition (1920-1933). Some organizations believed a world without alcohol was desirable and attainable. The Women's Christian Temperance movement was so zealous in promoting this goal they damaged the root beer industry during a three year boycott (1898) when they falsely assumed it to be an alcoholic beverage. At the same time, industrial capacity for alcohol production was increasing by the year. With the fall of the Ottoman Empire alcohol production began anew in many Middle Eastern societies.
Austin, Gregory A. Alcohol in Western Society from Antiquity to 1800: A Chronological History. Santa Barbara: ABC, 1985.
Bradel, Fernand. Capitalism and Material Life 1400-1800. 1975.
Chafetz, Morris E. Liquor: The Servant of Man. Boston: Brown & Co., 1965.
Ghaliounqui, Paul. Fermented Beverages in Antiquity. New York: Academic Press, 1979.
Hanson, Prof. David J. http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol/timeline/index.html. State University of New York. 1997-2015. http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol/timeline/index.html (accessed February 7, 2015).
Uncorking the past: The history of drinking. http://www.economist.com/node/883706.
Alcohol is a contributor to disease, disability, and high death rates in countries of all incomes.
Production of beer and spirits has been largely consolidated to a few global corporations.
Moderate consumption of beer, wine or distilled spirits reduces heart disease. Moderate drinkers tend to be healthier and live longer than either abstainers or alcohol abusers.