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The Arab-Israeli Conflict
Transcript of The Arab-Israeli Conflict
World War I:
War of Independence:
-War broke out after the UN announced a partition of Palestine on 29th November 1947.
-The partition involved the termination of Britain's mandate and the division of Palestine into two separate states: a Jewish state and an Arab state.
The Jews supported this, but Arabs were opposed to it.
The Jews then declared independence within the partition's Jewish state , leading to an outbreak of war after Arabs threatened military action.
After the expiry of the British mandate Israel officially became a state.
Prominent nations (US & USSR) immediately recognised Israel
and indicted Arabs for violence.
Media Portrayal of Arab-Israeli Conflict:
It can be argued that mainstream media is more inclined to be sympathetic towards the Palestinian perspective and to present Israelis in an unfavourable light.
This is achieved through; the manipulation of emotive language, choice of language, strategic placement of text, being selective when choosing which information is presented and deliberately excluding vital facts that contribute to context, placing more emphasis on some news stories and giving them disproportionate air time and the use of sources that cannot be verified.
In November 1917, the British Foreign Secretary (Arthur Balfour) wrote to the Zionist Conference declaring support for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Britain's support for a Jewish homeland resulted in additional support from the allies.
McMahon -Hussein Correspondence:
An agreement through an exchange of letters between the British and the Palestinians. The agreement involved the return of land under the Ottoman Empire to Arab nationals at the conclusion of World War I.
Formation of PLO:
In 1964, the Palestinian Liberation Organisation was formed in Jordan. The PLO is a combination of Arab organisations and currently represents all Palestinians. Their main aim is to regain the rights to land given by the UN to Palestine.
Prior to 1967, the organisation was not violent but became extremist after it became dominated by guerilla fighters and the Syrian wing 'Fatah', led by Yasir Arafat. Some extremist units within the PLO have been associated with terrorism, suicide bombing and hijackings.
The group has launched several attacks on Israel since its establishment and is supported by its neighbouring Arab nations.
Six Day War:
The 1967 war between Arabs and Israelis after the Egyptian president Nasser decided to close one of Israel's main ports.
After conflict broke out, the Israelis seized control of Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank and Golan Heights, after defeating the Arabs in six days.
Yom Kippur War
This conflict occurred in October 1973 after the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat launched a surprise Arab attack on Israel during the Jewish day of atonement.
Arabs fought on Israeli-occupied territories- including the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights and temporarily regained land lost during the six day war.
The Israeli forces eventually won this land back and the war concluded after the UN initiated a truce between Arab and Israeli forces.
Zionism & Jewish Immigration
Jewish 'diaspora' during the 2nd century left Jews displaced and without a homeland
'Zionism' is a form of nationalism and refers to the support of a Jewish state and return to the Jewish homeland
Under Israel's Law of Return, any Jew or person with claim to Jewish heritage is entitled to assisted immigration and Israeli citizenship.
The term 'diaspora' refers to the displacement and dispersion of a population, and in this context refers to the exile of Palestinians from Palestine
Only 29% of Palestinians have not been forcibly displaced
Palestinian diaspora has resulted in 6 million refugees
Sykes -Picot Agreement
A secret agreement negotiated in 1915 and 1916 by French and British diplomats, involving the planned partition of the Ottoman Empire.
League of Nations Mandate:
After World War I, land was divided up into mandates by the League of Nations.
Through this mandate, the United Kingdom administered Palestine
The intifada was a mass uprising of Palestinians (in particular those from the West Bank and Gaza) against Israeli occupation that began in 1987.
The intifada is made up of hundreds of people who object to Israeli occupation through strikes, demonstrations, rock throwing, political graffiti and molotov cocktails.
In 2005, the Israeli troops oversaw the evacuation of Jewish settlers from Gaza and four smaller Jewish settlements on the West Bank. The decision to withdraw Israelis was made with the intention of increasing security for settlers, relieving the IDF (Israeli Defence Force) of pressure and reducing tension between Palestinians and Israelis.
The decision was made after much resistance from Palestinians.
In 2011, the President of the Palestinian National Authority announced intentions of proceeding with attempts for recognition of statehood by the UN and Security Council.
Negotiations between Arabs and Israelis continue to be ongoing.
1. Overview of the conflict
i-British treaties during WWI
ii- Post WWII escalation
2. Media portrayal
i- media sources
ii- reasons for bias
Source 2 is an image and caption from a photo gallery on the BBC website. The BBC has been heavily criticised for their 'misleading' images and captions.
This source is an example of biased reporting as it implies Hamas (Palestinian Islam Assembly) government buildings have been destroyed by Israelis and neglects to mention the Hamas have been heavily involved in terrorism and buildings destroyed were being utilised as military bases.
This source is a prime example of the technique of selective reporting to provoke reactions from readers.
Similarly to source 1, source 2 presents bias against Israelis and favouritism towards Palestinians and includes an image that sparks an emotive response from a viewer, however source 1 is not selective in reporting.
Source 1 is an article published by the New York Times.
It can be argued that the source is extremely biased for a number of reasons:
The article's title only mentions Israeli airstrikes, despite later mentioning Palestinian involvement through the firing of 14 rockets
The article also places a heavy emphasis on damage caused by Israelis in the first paragraph and only mentions Palestinian involvement in the second, less prominent paragraph. This emphasis overshadows Palestinian actions.
The article also uses a strong, emotion-provoking image which supports a Palestinian perspective, they make no mention of damages inflicted upon Israelis in these attacks, nor do they include images.
Potential reasons for bias:
Journalists that authored/created sources 1 & 2 may be prejudiced and possess strong beliefs, making it difficult for them to be objective when reporting
A perspective that favours the Palestinians or the 'underdog' may be more appealing to readers, leading to higher sales
A study of bias in BBC reporting over a 6 month period