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Expansion of the s-genitive in World Englishes Hansen & Heller

Paper at the BICLCE 4 in Vigo, 28th September, 2017 (Workshop by Cristina Suárez-Gómez, Lucía Loureiro-Porto & Robert Fuchs "Morphosyntactic variation in World Englishes: Apparent-time and diachronic studies")
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on 2 October 2017

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Transcript of Expansion of the s-genitive in World Englishes Hansen & Heller

Expansion of the
s
-genitive in World Englishes

Beke Hansen, University of Kiel
Benedikt Heller, University of Leuven

Genitive alternation

"arguably the best researched of all syntactic alternations in English"













language-internal constraints

POSSESSOR ANIMACY
(1)
my grandpa
's

company


CONSTITUENT LENGTH
(2)
the life

of
an ordinary average person

(3)
the

country
's

unstable political situation


SIBILANCY
(4)
the most fundamental problem

of
our age


language-external factors

GENRE
VARIETY
TIME


Genitive alternation
language-external factors

TIME
the
of
-genitive
was the incoming variant in the 9th century
the
s
-genitive
was the dominant variant until the 13th century
the
of
-genitive
increasingly replaced the
s
-genitive
in Middle English
the
s
-genitive
increased again in Early Modern English

Figure adapted with data from
Rosenbach 2002:179 & 186

Genitive alternation
language-external factors

TIME
the
s
-genitive
decreased again in the time periods between 1700-1750 and 1800-1850
but then continued to increase after 1850 due to the expansion to collective, locative, and temporal noun classes

(7)
the local community
's enthusiastic response
Genitive alternation
language-external factors

TIME
apparent-time method
extraction of interchangeable genitives in 10% of the spoken texts

appositive genitives

double genitives

partitive genitives

genitives with indefinite possessums


Figure adapted with data from
Rosenbach 2002:28

(8)
my brother
's children


(9)
the local community
's enthusiastic response
(10)
Hong Kong
's largest employer
(11)
yesterday
's land auction


(12) the other side of
the hill

Results
The genitive alternation in apparent time
Discussion and conclusion
Research questions
1. Do we find evidence for a rise of the
s
-genitive in the L2 varieties HKE, PhiE, and IndE?
2. Do we find evidence for changes in the animacy constraint in HKE, PhiE, and IndE?

animate possessors
collective, temporal, locative noun possessors
inanimate possessors
Introduction
Research questions

1. Do we find evidence for a rise of the
s
-genitive in the L2 varieties HKE, PhiE, and IndE?

2. Do we find evidence for changes in the animacy constraint in HKE, PhiE, and IndE?
Method
coding of the interchangeable genitives according to the language-external factor AGE

coding of the possessors according to the language-internal factor ANIMACY
1
animate
2
collective
locative
temporal
3
inanimate

classifying genitives

idiomatic/fixed genitives
the company's objectives
vs.

the objectives of the company
N=1,736
Potential and limitations
Areas for further research
References
Biewer, Carolin, Tobias Bernaisch, Mike Berger & Benedikt Heller. 2014. "Compiling The Diachronic Corpus of Hong Kong English (DC-HKE): Motivation, progress
and challenges." Poster at ICAME 35 in Nottingham.
Berardo, Sacha Anthony & Rita Calabrese. 2012. "Nativising English: Evidence from a diachronic corpus of Indian English (DiCIE)." In: Gisella Maiello & Rosario
Pellegrino (eds).
Database, corpora, insegnamenti linguistici.
Fasano: Schena Editore: 35-53.
Collins, Peter, Ariane Macalinga Borlongan & Xinyue Yao. 2014. "Modality in Philippine English: A diachronic study."
Journal of English Linguistics
42(1):68-88.
Fuchs, Robert. 2017. "The progressive in 19th- and 20th century Indian English: A pilot study." Paper at BICLCE 7 in Vigo.
Fuchs, Robert & Ariane Macalinga Borlongan. 2016. "Recent diachronic change in the use of the present perfect and past tense in Philippine and Indian English."
Paper presented at ISLE 4 in Poznań.
Grafmiller, Jason. 2014. "Variation in English genitives across modality and genres."
English Language & Linguistics
18(3):471-496.
Jankowski, Bridget & Sali A. Tagliamonte. 2014. "On the genitive's trail: Data and method from a sociolinguistic perspective."
English Language and Linguistics
18(2):305-329.
Hackert, Stephanie & Diana Wengler. 2017. "Genitive variation and change in postcolonial Englishes: Focus on semantic relations". Paper at BICLCE 7 in Vigo.
Heller, Benedikt, Benedikt Szmrecsanyi & Jason Grafmiller. 2017. "Stability and fluidity in syntactic variation world-wide: The genitive alternation across varieties of
English."
Journal of English Linguistics
45(1):3-27.
Hundt, Marianne & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2012. "Animacy in Early New Zealand English."
English World-Wide
33(3):241-263.
Labov, William. 1963. "The social motivation of a sound change."
Word
19(3):273-309.
Labov, William. 1972.
Sociolinguistic patterns.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Rosenbach, Anette. 2002.
Genitive variation in English: Conceptual factors in synchronic and diachronic studies.
Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Rosenbach, Anette. 2014. "English genitive variation: The state of the art."
English Language & Linguistics
18(2):215-262.
Thomas, Russel. 1931.
Syntactical processes involved in the adnominal periphrastic genitive in the English language.
PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
(https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/78568, last access 09/11/2017)
Wolk, Christoph, Joan Bresnan, Anette Rosenbach & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2013. "Dative and genitive variability in Late Modern English: Exploring cross-
constructional variation and change."
Diachronica
30(3):382-419.
+ clearly identifiable trends in apparent time
+ focus on developments in L2-varieties of English
+ inclusion of language-external factor AGE in the study of the
genitive alternation
- data sparseness
- other relevant factors were not simultaneously analysed

- not tested against real-time data
extend study to more genitives from more varieties
include speaker's AGE as an independent variable in regression models
include other social factors in the study of the genitive choice

conduct apparent-time studies on other alternations
test findings from apparent-time studies against real-time data

The genitive alternation in apparent time according to gender
Genitives in a typological perspective
the mother of the girl
N GEN
the girl's mother
GEN N
of
-genitive
s
-genitive
(Rosenbach 2014:215)
(ICE-HK:W1B-030)
(ICE-HK:W1B-030)
(ICE-HK:S1A-001)
(ICE-IND*:S1B-024)
(ICE-IND*:S2B-012)
(ICE-IND*:S2A-031)
(cf. Grafmiller 2014)
(cf. Hundt & Szmrecsanyi 2012, Heller, Szmrecsanyi & Grafmiller 2017)
(cf. Thomas 1931, Rosenbach 2002, Wolk et al. 2013)
(cf. Thomas 1931, Rosenbach 2002)
(cf. Wolk et al. 2013)
(data from Thomas 1931, Rosenbach 2002:176, 186, Wolk et al. 2013:392)
(cf. Labov 1963)
(cf. Labov 1972, Jankowski & Tagliamonte 2014)
(
my brother's children
)
(
the local community's enthusiastic response
(ICE-HK:S2B-034),
Hong Kong's largest employer, yesterday's land auction
)
(
the airport's infrastructure
, ICE-HK:S2B-001)
(e.g. Jankowski & Tagliamonte 2014)
(cf. DC-HKE Biewer et al. 2014, Phil-BROWN Collins, Borlongan & Yao 2014, DiCIE Berardo & Calabrese 2012, Kolhapur & ICE-IND Fuchs & Borlongan 2016, diachronic newspaper corpora Fuchs 2017, Hackert & Wengler 2017)
(ICE-HK:S1A-034)
(ICE-HK:W1B-013)
(ICE-HK:W2A-010)
(ICE-HK:S1A-014)
(ICE-HK:S2A-052)
(ICE-HK:S1A-006)
(ICE-HK:S1A-002)
(ICE-HK:S2B-034)
(ICE-HK:W2E-007)
(ICE-HK:S2B-042)
(ICE-HK:S1A-001)
(6)
Hong Kong
's largest employer
(5)
yesterday
's land auction
(ICE-HK:S2B-034)
(ICE-HK:S2B-042)
(ICE-HK:W2E-007)
(
a girls' school
)
(
Valentine's Day
)
(
the city of Hong Kong
)
(
a friend of Michael's
)
(
a pinch of sugar
)
(
a basic requirement of the employers
)
(e.g. SIBILANCY)


ICE-HK
ICE-PHIL
ICE-IND*
ICE-HK
ICE-IND*
ICE-PHIL
ICE-HK
ICE-PHIL
ICE-IND*

Animacy in apparent time
(N=1,392)
s
-genitive
the company
's

objectives
possessor

possessum
the objectives

of

the company
possessum

possessor

of
-genitive


Figure adapted from
Wolk et al. 2013:410
Figure adapted from
Wolk et al. 2013:393
Full transcript