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LGBT History in the US
Transcript of LGBT History in the US
49,000-68,000 Section 8 discharges issued by 1942. Resulted in ruined reputations, hospitalization, interrogation on personal matters, and force to give names of partners.
Sergeant Pat Bond had over 500 women discharged from her Tokyo base. WW2 Saturday, June 28, 1969- The Stonewall Riots.
July 4, 1969- The Mattachine Society held a national meeting, resulting in the Gay Liberation Front (GLF).
1970- Sylvia Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson formed Street Transvestite Action Revolution (STAR).
1973- American Psychiatric Association formally drops homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fighting Back 81-121 deaths in gay community in LA.
"AIDS is not just God's punishment for homosexuals. It is God's punishment for the society that tolerates homosexuals." -popular televangelist Jerry Falwell
1987- Aids Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) started by activist and playwright Larry Kramer AIDS Epidemic The Supreme Court will tackle gay marriage this year, with an ultimate ruling in June.
Gays and lesbians are the most frequent victims of hate crimes in the U.S. today, and that's with 75% of crimes committed against these individuals going unreported.
Half of LGBT youth are rejected by their families as a result of their sexual orientation, and 1 in 4 will become homeless the day they come out.
Suicide is the leading cause of death amongst LGBT youth, who are 6 times as likely as heterosexual youth to attempt suicide. Why This Matters Today Europeans came to New World with a very fixed and strict idea of gender and gender roles.
"berdache"- word used by french explorers to describe men and women who took on the dress and tribal duties of the other sex.
Homosexuality punishable by death in PA until 1682 (to be reinstated 32 years later). Post-Revolutionary New idea of American masculinity, in contrast to the stereotypical Englishman.
"homosocial"- social institution in which the genders socialized in different spheres, and strong same-sex relationships were encouraged.
Mid-late 1800s we begin seeing a few women who are open about their same-sex relationships, most notably Charlotte Cushman (a famous Shakespearean actress) and Louisa May Alcott (author). In the late 1800s, discussion of homosexuality arose in the new field of sexology.
In 1892, Dr. James G. Kiernan proposed that homosexuals were persons whose"general mental state is that of the opposite sex".
In 1893, Dr. F.E. Daniel (editor of The Texas Medical Journal) proposed that homosexuals be rendered infertile (as this was more humane). 1920's Sexology "Marriage Manuals" become popular.
Joseph Collins, MD, differentiates in bestseller "The Doctor Looks at Love and Life" describes the "natural homosexual" as a "victim of Fate".
"People are now daring to talk about birth control, and important provisions are being made for the execution of such methods... The time is coming when a man's love for a man and a woman's love for a woman will be studied and understood as it never has in the past." -excerpt from Mary Casal's 1930 autobiography *People began to realize that they were not alone.* Sep 1937- "The present apathy of the public towards perverts, generally regarded as 'harmless', should be changed to one of suspicious scrutiny. The harmless pervert of today can be and often is the loathsome mutilator and murderer of tomorrow... " -J. Edgar Hoover (director of FBI) A Panic Emerging Community Lesbians and gay men began moving into areas which are still today recognized as gay neighborhoods (i.e. Beacon Hill in Boston, North Beach in San Francisco, and Greenwich Village in New York).
Openly gay clubs began appearing, like Harlem's "Lucky's Rendezvous" and San Francisco's "Black Cat".
"Homophile" groups, like the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis form.
1948- Alfred Kinsey releases "Sexual Behaviour in the Human Male" Mattachine Society 1950-formed by Harry Hay.
"ONE" magazine released from 1953-1972.
Within 3 years, already had 2,000 members.
Underwent an ideological split in 1953. Harvey Milk Came to San Francisco in 1972, as part of the large gay migration that took place between 1969-79.
The first openly homosexual person to be elected to public office in the United States when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors (in 1977).
Assassinated November 27, 1978. "Historically the lesbian has two choices: being criminal or going straight. The present revolutionary project is the creation of a legitimate atate defined by women. Only women can do this. Going straight is legitimizing your oppression. As was being a criminal. A male society will not permit any other choice for a woman." -Jill Johnston, 1973 Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution Lesbian Feminism