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The Metallurgy of Manganese
Transcript of The Metallurgy of Manganese
The History of Manganese Metallurgy
- in ancient times there existed magnesia; composed of male magnes and female magnes
- male magnes attracted iron
- is now known as the iron ore lodestone or magnetite
- female magnes did not attract iron
- is now known as manganese dioxide or naturally occuring pyrolusite
- manganese dioxide was used during the Stone Age as pigments for cave paintings
- In the 16th century, Michele Mercati called magnesia, manganesa and finally the metal isolated from it became known as manganese
Properties of Manganese
- It is a silvery-gray metal.
- It is hard and brittle, and difficult to fuse but easy to oxidize.
- The most common oxidation states of Mn are +2, +3, +4, +6 and +7
- The +2 oxidation state is the most stable.
- is the most stable oxidizing state.
- gives a pale pink color
- this state is used in living organisms for essential functions
- other states are toxic for the human body
- this oxidation state results from the removal of the two 4s
electrons, leaving a high spin ion in which all five of the 3d
orbitals contain a single electron
- Aluminum and manganese
- Zinc and manganese
- Copper and manganese
- Sulfate and manganese
The Separation of Manganese
- Manganese is not found as a free metal in nature
- It is however, commonly found as a mineral consisting alongside oxides, sillicates and carbonates
- Pure manganese can be isolated by heating manganese dioxide with carbon or aluminum which removes the oxygen and leaves pure manganese (pyrometallurgy)
1.) Mining: ores are mined (over 80% South Africa and Ukraine)
2.) Crushing & Grinding: crushed then grinded into powder
3.) Ore Dresing: removing undesired foreign impurities
4.) Leaching: which involves the use of aqueous solutions containing a lixiviant ( liquid medium used to selectively extract the desired metal)
- leachant is brought into contact with the manganese ore
- the type of leachang is specific for each desired metal
- oxidation potential
5.) Solution Concentration & Purification
- precipitation of manganese compound
- ion exchange
- In the late 18th century, Johan Gottlieb Gahn became the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese
- reduced the dioxide with carbon
- in the 19th century manganese was used in steelmaking
- in 1816 people began to note that adding manganese to iron made it harder but not more brittle
- in modern times, manganese dioxide is used commercially as the cathodic material for disposable dry cell and dry batteries
Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. They are used for the production of many metal structures and materials, like oil and gas pipelines, automobiles, ships, beverage cans, shopping carts, etc. It increases strength, hardness and wear resistance when alloyed in steel.
Standard steels have a manganese content of between 0.15- 0.80%, which is introduced as ferromanganese or silicomanganese to deoxidize carbon steels.
The silicon in the silicomanganese reacts with oxygen to silicate, which readily separates from steel.
In stainless steel roughly 1% of manganese is found.
Alloys combining 20% or more manganese with copper, have a high thermal expansion coefficient, a useful attribute in temperature control devices. They are also a non-magnetic, making them suitable for small watch parts. Various electronic applications that require non-magnetic components use small quantities of manganese with alloys of zinc, gold, silver and bismuth.
Presented By: Edith Fernandez, Kelly Navas, and Karie Poon
- Manganese has many functions throughout our bodies, for example:
- 15-20 milligrams of Manganese is located in bone which helps with proper growth, helps with bone metabolism, and building enzymes for bone structures.
- Manganese is found in kidney, liver, and adrenal glands to assist with bodily functions.
- Manganese helps absorb biotin, thiamin, and choline in the body.
- Manganese superoxide is a powerful antioxidant that can help find free radicals in the body that can potentially be harmful and then neutralizes them.
Other applications of Manganese are:
- Batteries- alkaline batteries depend on the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.
- Low-cost stainless- very little manganese is used in making steel, however it's important in strengthening the steal. About 90% of manganese is used in steel
In conclusion manganese is a very important metal as it can be used in a variety of modern applications. Manganese is often used in the strengthening of steel, producing batteries, and for bodily functions. In order to extract and purify manganese ores, we often use hydrometallurgy which is more suitable for manganese. This process gives us pure manganese which can be used to produce different alloys, such as steel and alluminum alloys.
Thanks for listening!!