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Joint Application of Operational Art
Transcript of Joint Application of Operational Art
Crucial enablers for a COG to function as such and are essential to the accomplishment of the adversary’s assumed objectives.
The Ways (Actions) are Critical Capabilities
NATO Perspective of LOE
"Lines of effort establish the inter-relationship between DP’s, to establish the critical path along which operations must develop en route to the CoG, in order that events and actions are sequenced to achieve the end state"
Wicked Problems - How to make toast
Good Design Technique
Op Design Methodology
What is going on in the environment?
Where do we act to achieve our endstate?
What do we want the environment to look like?
How do we act to achieve our endstate?
Finding a Center of Gravity
Step 1. RAFT Analysis
Step 2. Ends, Ways, Means Analysis
Means used to enable the Critical Capabilities are Critical Resources/Requirements
Critical Vulnerabilities are Critical Resources/ Requirements that are vulnerable to attack
Step 3. Validation
Does the defeat, destruction, neutralization, or substantial weakening of the CoG cause the adversary to change its COA or prevent an adversary from achieving its strategic objectives (JP 5-0)?
Answers can be found in war gaming
Does or Uses Test
Does the CoG achieve the task or purpose as defined in the "Ends"?
Does the CoG execute the primary action (CC) that accomplishes the "Way"?
Are the requirements used or consumed to execute the primary action (CC)?
Do any of the other requirements do the action or perform the task ID'd as the CC?
Center of Gravity
Attack the CoG
Attack the CV
"A geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows a commander to gain a
over an adversary or contributes materially to achieving success."
“Decisive points are not CoGs, they are the keys to attacking or protecting them.”
Centers of Gravity, Critical Requirements and Critical Vulnerabilities can be decisive points as long as their acquisition, retention or loss provides a
over the enemy
Lines of Operation
Lines of Effort
ample: Lines of Operation in the battle of the Atlantic.
Blue dashed lines are Allied LOOs
Black lines are German LOOs
In this example the friendly CoG probably has critical requirements that can be grouped or categorized into civil type functions or efforts
Line of Operation:
Connects a series of decisive points over time that lead to control of a
Connects a force from its base of operations to its objective(s) when positional reference to the enemy is a factor.
A campaign or major operation may have a single or multiple physical lines of operation.
Line of Effort:
Links decisive points with the
logic of purpose
Enables visualization and description of the operation when positional reference to the enemy has less relevance.
Help JFCs visualize how military means can support non-military instruments of national power and vice versa.
That point in time and/or space at which the operation can no longer maintain momentum.
, the point at which effectively continuing the attack is no longer possible and the force must consider reverting to a defensive posture or attempting an operational pause.
, no longer has the capability for a counteroffensive or defend successfully.
Culmination does not equal defeat
In planning the intent is to induce culmination on your enemy while avoiding it yourself.
Phasing is a way to organize a complex joint operation into manageable parts
As a general rule, the phasing of the campaign or operation should be conceived in
event-driven rather than time-driven
terms. However, resource availability depends in large part on time-constrained activities and factors — such as sustainment or deployment rates — rather than the events associated with the operation.
Normally, each phase will have its own endstate
Shifts or changes in objectives and or main efforts can signal a phase change
Op Design Methodology
Linking Elements of Operational Design
ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONAL DESIGN
Lines of Operation Example
Operational design and JOPP are complementary elements of the overall planning process. Operational design provides an iterative process that allows for the commander’s vision and mastery of operational art to help planners answer ends–ways–means–risk questions and appropriately structure campaigns and operations.
The commander, supported by the staff, gains an understanding of the operational environment, defines the problem, and develops an operational approach for the campaign or operation through the application of operational design during the (Planning) initiation step of JOPP.
Op Art/Design Interface with JOPP
The specified standards approved by the
and or the
Secretary of Defense
that must be met before a joint operations can be concluded.
Typically developed and recommended by the JFC
X capability destroyed / eliminated
Legitimate Government restored
Agreement to start negotiations
Military End State
Military End State:
The set of required conditions that defines achievement of all military objectives. It normally represents a point in time and/or circumstances beyond which the President does not require the military instrument of national power as the primary means to achieve remaining national objectives.
Note: The difference between “termination” and “military end state” is very subtle. The NCA and Joint Force commanders do not always make the distinction and the terms can become synonymous. Nevertheless, military end state is a set of conditions that meet the termination criteria.
A clearly defined, decisive, and attainable goal toward which every military operation should be directed.
Establish a single desired result (goal)
Link directly or indirectly to one or more higher-level objectives. (or end states)
Be prescriptive, specific, and unambiguous.
Not infer ways and means for their accomplishment. It is not written as a task
A physical and/or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of actions, or another effect.
A desired effect can also be thought of as a condition that can support achieving an associated objective, while an undesired effect is a condition that can inhibit progress toward an objective.
1. Each desired effect should link directly to one or more objectives. (Effect -enemy leaves. Objective-route secure.)
2. The effect should be observable and measurable. (The enemy abandoned Hill 720)
3. The description should not specify ways and means for accomplishment.
4. The effect should be distinguishable from the objective it supports as a condition for success. (Effect -enemy leaves. Objective-route secure)
The distance and duration across which a joint force can successfully employ military capabilities.
Consider geography, lines of communication, basing, throughput, weapon system ranges
Extend friendly operational reach and limit adversary’s (exploit)
application military and non-military power against enemy sources of strength and simultaneous operations at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.
seeks to overwhelm the enemy throughout the operating area, creating simultaneous demands on enemy commanders
dominate the action, remain unpredictable, operate beyond capabilities of adversary
pace operations to your advantage
Phasing is a way to view and conduct a complex joint operation in
A range of options often built into the basic plan. Branches add flexibility to plans by anticipating situations that could alter the basic plan.
Anticipated and planned for subsequent operations based on the
possible outcomes of the current operation—victory, defeat, or stalemate.
may be required when a major operation may be reaching the end of its sustainability.
As such, operational pauses can provide a safety valve to avoid potential culmination, whilethe JFC retains the initiative in other ways.
Forces and Functions
Forces and Functions:
Commanders and planners can design campaigns and operations that focus on defeating either adversary forces, functions, or a combination of both
JFCs can focus on destroying and disrupting critical adversary functions such as C2, sustainment, and protection
The direct effect of destroying or disrupting critical adversary functions can create the indirect effects of uncertainty, confusion, and even panic in adversary leadership and forces and may contribute directly to the collapse of adversary capability and will.
ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONAL DESIGN
"Understand that the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) and the Joint Operations Planning Process (JOPP) are problem solving processes that work best with clear or easily identified problems. But if the problem is complex and ill-structured Design will help identify and clarify the problem.
Op Art/Design Interface with JOPP
Arguing the OE - Intro and Design's 4 Questions
Nesting End States, Objectives, Effects, Tasks
How to ID CoG
Branches and Sequels
Only example showing how Conditions support Objectives to get to the End State
Center of Gravity:
A COG is a source of power that provides moral or physical strength, freedom of action or will to act..
, a CoG could be a military force, an alliance, political or military leaders, a set of critical capabilities or functions, or national will.
a CoG often is associated with the adversary’s military capabilities — such as a powerful element of the armed forces — but could include other capabilities in the operational environment.
An aspect of a critical requirement, which is deficient or vulnerable to direct or indirect attack that will create decisive or significant effects.
Defines the problem – root cause
ID areas for action
ID areas of tension & competition
ID opportunities and challenges
Design therefore fills a gap. Design (problem identification for ill-structured problems) plus MDMP/JOPP (problem solving) should produce more effective actions to address the “underlying problems” rather than just “symptoms”. Design compliments MDMP and JOPP, it does not replace or compete with them. Or as General Dempsey, TRADOC Commander said, “We’ve concluded that the MDMP provides the commander the tools necessary to Decide, Direct, and Assess but not the tools to Understand and Visualize.”7 Design fills that gap."
Small War Journal
Commanders lead their staff through design to:
• Better understand the environment and situation.
• Identify the problem.
• Develop an operational approach to guide planning efforts.
Op Art/Design Interface with JOPP
Insights and Best Practices Focus Paper
Design and Planning
Plan or Order Development
COA Analysis & Wargaming
At the strategic level, that authority—the President, SecDef, or CJCS—initiates planning by deciding to develop military options.
Additionally, analyses of
developing or immediate crises may result in the President, SecDef, or CJCS initiating military planning through a WARNORD or other planning directive.
CCDRs and other commanders also initiate planning on their own authority when they
identify a planning requirement not directed by higher authority.
Occurs in non-crisis situations
Develop Campaign & Contingency Plans
Based on GEF, JSCP & other directives
Crisis Action Planning:
Time-sensitive OPORD development
Response to a situation
Timely prep of military COAs for consideration by the Pres/SecDef
Op Design Provides the Necessary Inputs for Mission Analysis
Step 1. Identify the conditions or criteria that defines the military end state. (from operational design)
Step 2. List Assigned objectives or tasks that should produce the military end state. (from operational approach or Mission Analysis)
Step 3. Identify the enemy and friendly Centers of Gravity and their critical factors that are linked to the attainment of the assigned objectives. (from operational design or Mission Analysis)
Step 6. Identify a component (i.e. Land component) or organization responsible for the task, decisive point or critical vulnerability.
Step 4. Designate critical vulnerabilities or groupings of related critical vulnerabilities as lines of operation/effort. (from CoG analysis)
Step 5. Identify any potential decisive points associated with a critical vulnerabilities as tasks. Decisive points can achieve desired or undesired effects related to the objective thus providing a marked advantage. Also review specified and essential tasks that are associated with a critical vulnerability and place them on a line of operation. Try to group and sequence them logically.
Steps from Mission Analysis that sets the stage for Course of Action Development
Anticipation is key to effective planning. JFCs must consider what might happen and look for the signs that may bring the possible event to pass.
During execution, JFCs should remain alert for the unexpected and for opportunities to exploit the situation.
Anticipation is not without risk.
Commanders and staff officers who tend to lean forward in anticipation of what they expect to encounter are more susceptible to deception efforts by an opponent.
1. What tasks must my command do for the mission to be accomplished
2. What is the purpose of the mission received?
3. What limitation have been placed on my own forces' actions?
4. What forces/assets are needed to support my operations?
Analysis Begins with 4 Questions
3. Essential for the planning to continue
WARNORD, OPORD, other Planning Directive
Not Specified &
Must execute to achieve desired end state
Operational Approach Informs the Mission Statement
Jt operation, phase, or component operation.
Becomes basis for assessment
Refined Planning Guidance (Minimum):
1. Approved mission statement
2. Key elements of OE
3. Clear Statement of Problem
4. Key Assumptions
5. Key Operational Limitations
6. Discussion of National Strategic End State
7. Termination Criteria
8. Military End State & Relation to National
Strategic End State
9. Military Objectives
10. JFC Thoughts on Conditions to achieve Objectives
11. Acceptable or Unacceptable Levels of Risk in Key Areas
12. JFC Visualization of Op Approach
Provides commander w/results of MA & allows commander to approve mission and give guidance
Answering a CCIR MUST be a decision required of the commander and MUST be critical to success of the mission
probability of occurring and their degree of severity
Evalutation of how factors (by Jt Function) impact the mission.
Inform CC & staff
JP 5-0 Appenix C
Focus the staff and subordinate planning activities during COA development
Mission Analysis Activities
Determine Specified, Implied, and essential tasks
Develop mission statement
Develop risk assesment
Develop mission success criteria
Develop commander's critical information requirements
Prepare staff estimates
Prepare and deliver mission analysis brief
Determine and analyze operational limitaions
Note: Not in MA Activities
Note: Not in MA Activities
(See Op Design Outputs)
COA Analysis Considerations
Given by CC or derive from CC intent statement
Series of Critical Tasks