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A Short History of Ireland

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emilse gf

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of A Short History of Ireland

Celtic groups have inhabited Ireland since the Iron Age (600 BC)

In Ad 432 St Patrick arrived in Ireland and started converting the Irish to the Christian faith.

The Vikings started raiding Ireland in the late 8th C. marking the end of the golden age of Christian Irish culture.
Ancient History
The Tudors
King Henry VIII resolved to bring Ireland under English control in order to prevent the Irish from becoming a focus of Christianity.

After brutal conflicts, Queen Elizabeth I and King James I were also determined to establish real control over Ireland.

As an attempt to introduce Protestantism to Ireland, during the 16th C and 17th C, the English confiscated lands and started a process of colonization with "plantations"

The "plantations" were Scottish and English Protestant colonists that were established in Ireland and replaced the Catholic landowners.

The never managed to convert the Catholic Irish to Protestantism.
Oliver Cromwell
In the mid 17th C, the Catholic Irish rebelled against English power and Protestant settlers.

After the English Civil War, Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell reconquered Ireland in the most brutal way.

The best lands were confiscated and given to British settlers. The Irish were seen as savages, so their murder and displacement was justified.
The Normans in Ireland
By the 12th C Ireland was divided in a number of small kingdoms.

In the early 12th C the Anglo-Normans started to gain interest in conquering Ireland. Lands were given to Norman lords.
A Short History of Ireland
For the next 200 years the Vikings plundered the Irish territory and founded some settlements.

The Vikings never achieved full domination of Ireland but their towns continued to grow.
Warfare, disease and intermarriage weakened the English influence in Ireland. The English-controlled territory shrank to a small area around Dublin (The Pale).

In an attempt to strengthen the English influence in Ireland, the Statutes of Kilkenny were passed in the year 1366. They established the need of English settlers to learn the English language and customs.

The Statutes of Kilkenny were not successful as the English in Ireland "were more Irish than the Irish themselves".
It was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration between 1845 and 1852.

During this period 1 million people died and a million more emigrated. This had a profound effect on the economy, culture and politics of Ireland.

The number of Gaelic or Irish speakers dropped dramatically and it was largely replaced by English.
The Irish Potato Famine
In 1893 this association was founded to promote the Irish language in Ireland and everywhere.
Acts of Union
In response to a rebellion in 1788, the English Parliament decided to pass an Act of Union in 1801.

This Act of Union created a new entity: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Gaelic League
The period of 1916-1921 was marked by political violence and confusion.

Unwilling to negotiate options, the Irish War of Independence developed between 1919-1921.

In 1921 the Irish and the English signed a treaty and established the division between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.

The Irish Free State (declared itself a Republic in 1949) became a Catholic nation while Nothern Irelan remained Protestant as it was part of the UK)
20th Century
The Troubles
The Troubles was the name given to a period of violence in Northern Ireland that extended from the 1960s-1990s.
Religious Political Linguistic
Religious Political Linguistic
In the 1990s a peace process began:
In 1994 the IRA was asked to cease their fire.
Most of the violence of the Troubles came to an end.
The Good Friday Agreement, was signed in 1998 establishing a devolved inclusive administration in Northern Ireland.
Full transcript