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Unit 4 Biology Review of AS2

Summary of key knowledge of area of study 4 VCE Biology
by

Lisa Chiavaroli

on 15 October 2013

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Transcript of Unit 4 Biology Review of AS2

Area of Study 2:
Change over time

Populations
Evolution
Human evolution
"A group of the same species living in particular geographical region at a given time"
Variation in populations
Types of variation:
- structural
- biochemical
- physiological
- developmental
- behavioural
Monomorphic (one form): a population with no variation of a particular trait

Polymorphic (many forms): a population with two or more variations of a particular triat
Monogenic: a trait controlled by one gene

Polygenic: a trait controlled by more than one gene
How many genes?
How many phenotypes?
Allele frequencies
Non-evolving populations
Evolving populations
No change in allele frequencies from generation to generation
Subject to change due to "change agents"
Point mutations
Block mutations (parts of chromosomes)
- Chromosomal mutations (whole chromosomes)
Random mutations
Natural selection
Genetic drift
Environment selects for most 'fit' phenotype
Genetic drift - founder effect
Chance events that can dramatically change allele frequencies - particularly in small populations
Gene flow
Emigration
"leaving"
Immigration
"entering"
The movement of individuals between populations - may change frequency rapidly
Analysing gene pools
Speciation
"the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of individuals"
How do we know its happended...?
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Fossil record
Dating fossils
Absolute
Relative
Transitional Fossils
Structural homology
Embryology
Biogeography
Molecular
DNA sequence
Amino acid sequence
Mitochondiral DNA
Patterns of evolution
Divergent
Convergent
Closely related species become more dissimilar over time in response to selection pressures
Over time selection pressures may act on distantly related species to produce superficial similarities
Evidence: Homologous structures
Evidence: Analogous structures
Adaptive raditation
"when a variety of different species evolve from a single ancestral species"
Biology
Culture
Technology
Classification
Anything transmitted genetically
adaptation for bipedalism
hair reduction
skull features including brain size/ function
Transfer of non-genetic information. Faster than biological evolution
language
story-telling
art
ceremonies
Also non-genetic tranfer of information. Ability to create and use items in environment. Developed because of bipedalism
tool
devices
fire
Rough timeline
Origins

p + q = 1
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