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Unit 1 AOS 1 (Part 2) Psychology Visual perception

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Katherine Patmore

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Unit 1 AOS 1 (Part 2) Psychology Visual perception

Characteristics of the visual perception system and the processes involved in detecting and interpreting visual stimuli
The effect of psychological factors on visual perception
distortions of visual perception by illusions
Key Knowledge
Introduction to Visual Perception
Some visual Illusions
How the physical reality of light from one object in the environment (referred to as the distal stimulus)
is cast as an image on the retina (called the proximal stimulus), and nerve impulses travel to the brain where higher mental processes enable us to organize and interpret what we see.
Visual Perception
The eye
From the time we receive an image to when we can identify what we see, six stages progress in sequence, from being reflexive physical functions of the eye and nervous system to being psychological functions of the brain, involving memory and thought processes
6 stage process

Light enters the eye through the cornea, a tough transparent tissue covering the front of the eye. it then passes through the pupil - the hole in the middle of the colored part of the eye (the iris) the lens focuses the light on the retina. Which contains the photoreceptors - light sensitive cells called rods and cones
1. Reception
The electromagnetic energy that we know as light energy is converted by the rods and cones into electrochemical nerve impulses. This allows the visual information to travel along the fibers of the optic nerve to the brain
2. Transduction
The next task for the rods and cones is to send the nerve impulses along the optic nerve to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobes, at the very back of the brain
3. Transmission
We can not pay attention to all of the millions of stimuli that enter the eye at the same time, so we pick the ones that are important to us and pay attention to those.
4. Selection
Upside-down
back-to-front
blurred
crisscrossed by a network of veins
patched by holes
The actual image on our retina is:
Sensation and perception
From receiving an image to ultimately interpreting what we see is complex and has been extensively studies from a number of psychological perspectives
The processes involved in sensation and perception are thought to be adaptive
The process
When the image is has been sent to the brain it is processed so that what we see is a crystal clear picture
Rods and Cones
Feature Detectors
Cells that individually respond to lines of a certain length, lines of a certain angle or lines moving in a certain direction. Feature detectors are cells found in the optic nerve in the primary visual cortex
Organization
When Visual information reaches the brain (the visual cortex), it is reorganized so that we can make sense of it. We do this by using certain visual perceptual principles.
Perceptual Principles
- Perceptual constancy
- Gestalt principles
-depth cues
Once the image is reassembles using these principles, it travels along two pathways simultaneously: to the temporal lode, to identify the object, and to the parietal lobe, to judge where the object is in space
6. Interpretation
This is the process whereby the visual stimulus/object is given meaning. the temporal lobes identify what the objects by comparing incoming information with information already stored in memory.
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