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Physiology 1: Introduction
Transcript of Physiology 1: Introduction
Can be modified for other purposes All physiological processes occur at the cellular level of organization.
Unicellular organisms can interact with other organisms to increase their physiological efficiency, which is how we will usually encounter them in this unit, Prokaryotes are limited in physiological complexity due to the lack of membrane-bound organelles Some prokaryotic species have modified the cell membrane to specialize in particular nutritional modes. All physiology has to occur in a relatively uniform cellular environment Some prokaryotes demonstrate physiological modes that are unique among organisms. Unicellular eukaryotes are able to utilize membrane-bound organelles to compartmentalize the cell.
Compartmentalization allows for more regulation of cellular conditions and a wider diversity of physiological processes to occur in the cell. Do not underestimate the impact of unicellular eukaryotes. While fungi are multicellular, they have limited cellular differentiation.
Because of this, physiology remains largely a function of the cellular level of organization. We will mostly encounter them in their interactions with other organisms. Plants demonstrate differentiation of cells.
Plant physiology can be understood in terms of tissue-level, organ-level, and even relatively simple systems-level organization. 2 Systems 3 Organs Cells & Tissues Animals generally demonstrate a greater degree of cellular differentiation than plants.
Because of this, animals demonstrate the greatest diversity of tissue-level, organ-level, and systems-level organization. Cells & Tissues Always! 3 Types of Plant Cells Most of a plant's cells are parenchymal cells.
Parenchymal cells are responsible for photosynthesis, while collenchyma and sclerenchyma provide structure and support.
Schlerenchymal cell walls are filled with lignin, a structural polymer. The lignification process leads to the death of the sclerenchymal cells at their functional maturity. 3 Types of Plant Tissues Dermal Ground Vascular Specialized parenchyma. Includes stomates & a waxy layer ("cuticle") to prevent dessication. Includes all three cell types. Involved in photosynthesis (at leaves), storage of food, support of plant, Not found in bryophytes. Contains specialized cells that comprise the Xylem and Phloem of the plant. Xylem Phloem transport water.
Made of tracheids and vessel elements.
dead at functional maturity. transport carbohydrates.
Made of sieve-tube elements and companion cells.
sieve-tube elements are dead at functional maturity.
companion cells regulate sieve-tube element function. Leaf Major function is photosynthesis.
Can be modified for other functions. Stem Major functions are support & transport.
Can be modified for other functions. Root Shoot Root All above-ground parts of the plant.
Photosynthesis, floral reproduction, etc. All below-ground parts of the plant.
nutrient/water absorption, etc. Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Tissue that lines the body.
Can have a wide variety of structures and functions (absorption, protection, sensation, cleaning, secretion, excretion, etc).
Separated from other tissues by a "basement membrane" Fibrous tissue that provides structure and support.
Includes bone, cartillage, blood, adipose ("fat") tissue, ligaments and tendons Muscular Tissue Responsible for locomotion both internally and externally.
Three major types:
Skeletal ("striated")- includes all voluntary movment.
cardiac- special muscle that comprises the heart.
smooth- lines organs and the gastrointestinal tract, responsible for peristalsis. Nervous Tissue Responsible for coordination and control of the body.
Comprised of neurons and glial cells. Organs & Systems Animal tissues are arranged into organs.
These organs comprise organ-systems that allow for the animal to accomplish life functions. Homeostasis: The internal, "steady-state" condition needed to remain alive.
The nervous system monitors conditions and effects responses that maintain homeostasis through the functions of organ systems. The physiological processes at work in any organism are constrained by the environment and adapted by evolution. Example 1:
Materials Exchange Unicellular and microscopic organisms are able to exchange materials directly with their environment
Plants and animals have evolved adaptations to accomplish these exchanges internally (usually through maximizing surface area) Example 2:
Energy Considerations The energetic considerations of an organism's enviornment have consequences for physiology and behavior. Example 3:
Convergence Similar environmental constraints often result in similar adaptive solutions. Make sure you can: Big Questions: How are the structures of an organism related to their functions?
How is physiology accomplished accross multiple levels of organization in an organism?
How does the environment constrain an organism's physiology? Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities rely on chemoautotrophic bacteria for energy. A paramecium Diatoms: Responsible for the production of perhaps 33% of all atmospheric oxygen "Fruiting Body" Mycellium Diversity of fungal mycellial hyphae:
Septate: Cells are separated by cell wall compartment ("septa")
Coenocytic: Cells are all fused together into a multi-nucleate structure
That's about as interesting as things get in fungi-land Explain how multicellularity allows for increased levels of organization in an organism.
Identify the cells, tissues, organs, and systems present in plants and animals and explain their physiological functions, and their contributions to homeostasis.
Provide examples of how an organism's environment places constraints on its physiology. The animation is a bit cheesy, but still... click here to play these clips! Don't click the big play button in the middle of my face or I will pause when you advance! click here! click here!