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Stress

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by

Victoria Block

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of Stress

Stress
Conclusion
Thank you for your attention!
And one more thing...
is here
What is Stress & How to deal with it?
Effects of Stress
What we'll learn:
1. Nature of Stress
2. Responding and Effects of Stress
3. Moderating Stress Impact
4. Health impairing behavior
5. Reactions to Illness
Nature of Stress
Stress
circumstances that threaten
or are perceived to threaten
one's well-being and taxes one's coping abilities
Appraisal of Stress
- Stress is an everyday life event
i.e. waiting in line, traffic jams, prepping for a test, etc.
- Many large events that cause tremendous stress
i.e.: natural disasters, death, illness, etc.

How do people appraise Stress?
- Ppl perceive stress differently
--> Anxious, neurotic ppl report more stress
--> Calm, outgoing ppl report less stress
Types of Stress
- Acute Stressors: threatening events w/ short duration

- Chronic Stressors: threatening events that have a long duration
-
Frustration
: pursuit of a goal is thwarted

-
Conflict
: when 2+ incompatible motivations compete for expression
-> Approach-Approach: 2 attractive goals
-> Avoidance- Avoidance:2 unattractive goals
-> Approach-avoidance: choices have good & bad

-
Change:
significant alterations
-> Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): measures
degrees of stress for changes

-
Pressure
: involves expectations/demands
Responding to Stress
- 3 Ways in which we respond to Stress
1. Emotional
2. Physiological
3. Behavioral
Emotional
- no correlation b/w stress & emotions
- BUT correlationfound b/w stress response & emotions
I.E.: self blame leads to guilt

- pleasant emotions correlate to resilience
- Inverted U-Hypothesis: as task difficulty increases, pleasure decreases
Phsyiological

-General Adaptation Syndrome: body's stress response is 3 stages:
1. Alarm: Fight or Flight
2. Resistance: physical changes stabilize while coping
3. Exhaustion: arousal decreases
Behavioral Responses
Coping: refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress

Types of Coping
1.
Adaptive (+) (constructive coping)
- rational thinking, humor, releasing
emotions, forgiving, managing hostility
learning to relax, minimizing vulnerability
2.
Maladaptive (-)
- Giving Up & Learned Helplessness: passive behavior made by aversive events (leads to depression)
- Aggression: behavior intended to hurt someone (usually caused by fustration)
- Indulging Oneself
- Defensive Coping
Defense Mechanisms
1. What do they defend against?
- unwelcome emotions
2. How do they work?
- through self-deception
3. Are they unconscious or conscious
- BOTH!
Types of Defensive Coping
- Denial of reality
- Fantasy
- Intellectualization
- Undoing
- Overcompensation
- + Freud's Mechanisms
How Stress Affects:
- Mental Function
- Physical Health
Effects of Stress on Mental Functioning
1. Impaired Task Performance
- Affects attention
- quick to conclusions
- Failure to review all options
- Poor Memory
2.

Burnout
: physical/emotional
exhaustion, cynicism, lowered sense
of self efficacy
- brought on by work stress
- Symptoms- fatigue, weakness,
feeling incompetent
3. Psych. Problems/Disorders
- Stress can cause: poor grades,
sleep disturbances, drug abuse,
sexual difficulty

- Leads to mental illnesses such as:
depression, schizophrenia, anxiety
disorders
Stress & Physical Health
Psychosomatic diseases: genuine physical ailments that are
in part caused by stress
Personality, Hostility, & Heart Disease
- Heart Disease Facts:
-> 30% of deaths
-> Atherosclerosis: narrowing of arteries

Personality & Heart Disease
- Type A: competitive, impatient, anger
- Type B: relaxed, patient, easy going
-> Type A correlation w/ higher risk of HD

Emotions & Heart Attacks
- Episodes of anger are frequenct before heart attack
- Correlation b/w long term depression & heart disease
Stress and Immunity
Immune Response: body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral,
foreign substances

- Stress lowers immune responses
--> Study showed that college students more prone to catch a cold during
finals
--> Other stresses: caring for sick loved ones, being ill, money problems
--> Stress can also cause premature aging of immune cells

JUST CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
Moderating Stress
- What helps w/ Stress?
-> Social support
-> Optimistic
Health Impairing Behavior
Behaviors we'll talk about:
1. Smoking
2. Poor Nutrition
3. Lack of Exercise
4. Alcohol & Drugs
5. Behavior & AIDS
Smoking
- Roughly 25% of Men & 21% of Women smoke
- shortens life expectancy 13-14 years

- Can lead to: lung cancer, heart disease,
hypertension, bronchitis

Why not quit?
- fear of weight gain, anxious, irritable, not able
to cope with stress
Poor Nutrition
- leads to obesity
- elevated level of cholesterol
- cardiovascular disease
- Hypertension
- Osteoporosis: lack of calcium
Lack of Exercise
- decreases heart disease risk
- decreases risk of cancers
- decreases stress
Behavior & AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: disorder in which immune system is gradually weakened & eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus. (HIV)

- HIV and AIDS are not the same thing!
- AIDS is the final stage of HIV that ends in death BUT doesn't always happen
--> Although HIV strains are are becoming resistant to medication
--> Medical regiment is intense (20-30 pills a day)
--> Very expensive

Transmission
--> through bodily fluids (semen & blood)
--> easily transmitted from males to sexual partner
--> casual contact not dangerous

Protection
-->reduce # of sexual partners
--> Use condoms
--> Be aware the HIV/AIDS is still a concern
Why engaged in stressful activity?
1. Happen slowly
2. Pleasurable activities
3. Risks of activities occur later
4. PPl tend to believe bad stuff won't happen to them!
Full transcript