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Settling the West-Miners, Ranchers, Settlers and Native Americans

chapter 8

Becky Lockler

on 15 September 2016

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Transcript of Settling the West-Miners, Ranchers, Settlers and Native Americans

After the Civil War the settlement of the west became the focus in American History. Four main groups were effected and had to deal with great hardships. Railroads led to opportunities and heartbreak for some. Most affected were the Native Americans.
Settling the West
The prospect of striking it rich led many to go west. Finding Minerals started with placer mining then
would finish with a dig beneath the surface, called quartz mining.
Mining Industry
Ranching and Cattle drives
Rising Rooms
Boom Towns/Ghost Towns

Leadville and Virginia City
Calico, CA
Dime Novels
Farming the Plains
1890 Census proved that the West was closed.
Most who lived on the Plains and had money came to rely on Wheat Farming. Thus the creation of the
Wheat Belt.


soon led to

Dry Farming
Homestead Act 1862
Claim 160 acres
1. $10.00 fee
2. Make improvements
3. live for 5 years

New technology help to
increase farming.
Steel Plow
Mechanical reaper
Horse Collar
Threshing Machine
Peace Conference
Native Americans
Dakota Sioux agree to live on small reservation
Government late on a payment caused starving among the tribe. Chief Little Crow asked for food on credit. Once denied fighting erupted. Soldiers and civilians killed, 307 Dakota Sioux sentence to death.
Sand Creek Massacre
Army sent to patrol the Plains led to more conflict. Lakota, branch of Sioux had far reaching hunting grounds.
Chiefs-Red Cloud, Crazy Horse and
Sitting Bull Willing to fight for land.
Ask to surrender at Fort Lyon, some did, many did not.
Chief Black Kettle, with Cheyenne seek out Peace deal.
Waiting on permission to negotiate, Colonel John Chivington
was ordered to attack.
1867 Congress proposed to make two large reservations. One for Sioux other for Plains Indians. Many refused to move, those that did faced miserable conditions.
Ghost Dance
Many believe the Indians life would in improve if the would just
To become more like Americans.

Dawes Act
1887 Congress agreed to give each head of household 160 acres of land for farming.
Encouraged assimilation
Land could not be sold for 25 years
Replaced reservation with allotment

Vigilance committee
Open Range

The New South
In the years following the
Civil War, southern leaders
hoped to build a “New South.”

Textile factories and lumber mills sprang up. So did iron, coal, and steel processing plants.

Despite efforts to diversify, most farmers still depended on cash crops.
Crops grown for profit.
The price of cotton—their main crop—plummeted after the war.

Worked to negotiate better prices on supplies, freight charges, and loan rates
Connected farmers in the South and West

They worked to modernize the economy by:
supporting industries
diversifying agriculture

New rail lines connected
urban hubs with rural
areas, cities with towns.

Railroads moved people
and products.
Cities grew.

Yet economic expansion in the South lagged behind the rest of the country.

War damage was extensive.

The South lacked a well-trained labor force, and wages were low.

A lack of capital led to a dependence on northern bankers.
The price of cotton—their main crop—plummeted after the war.

Boll weevils wiped out entire crops.

Faced with serious problems, farmers joined together to form the Farmers’ Alliance.

Black southerners made important political and economic advances in the postwar years.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 banned discrimination in public facilities and transportation.

The Supreme Court, however, ruled in a series of cases decided in 1883 that such decisions were local issues.

Most important, they gained:
the right to vote
access to education
Groups such as the Ku Klux Klan terrorized African Americans. Newfound freedoms were stripped away.

Segregation was enforced
The diverse Indian peoples, however, shared a common view toward nature—a view that conflicted with that of many white Americans
Native Americans saw themselves as part of nature and viewed nature as sacred.

Many white Americans viewed the land as a resource to produce wealth.

During the 1800s, the government carried out a policy of moving Indians out of the way of white settlers
At first, Indians in the East were moved west, into the Indian Territory of the Plains.

Indians were forced into reservations, no longer free to roam the Plains.

Settlers introduced diseases to which Indians had no immunity.

Settlers slaughtered buffalo herds.

But attacks and retaliation led to distrust—and to tragedy.

Promises were made and peace treaties were signed, but they often were broken.

Frustration turned to violence as the government moved to crush Indian resistance.

The Red River War led to the defeat of the Southern Plains Indians.

The Sioux were victorious at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
Chief Joseph and the Nez Percés surrendered after attempting to retreat to Canada.

As their way of life slipped away, some Indians turned to a religious revival based on the Ghost Dance
The ritual preached that white settlers would be banished and the buffalo would return.

In an effort to end the Ghost Dance, the government attempted to arrest Sitting Bull.

However, he was killed in a confrontation with U.S. troops.
More than 100 Indians who fled were killed at Wounded Knee.
The Indian Wars were over.

What stop the cattle trails?
Barbed wire fence
Over supply
Boomer-came in late 1800s
to claim land
Sooner-try to claim land
before land run
Two ways the government help support the transcontinental Railroad
1. provide money in form of loans
2. gave land grants
Central Pacific-
Sacramento, CA
hired Chinese
Union Pacific
Omaha, NE

What did the Railroad do :
1. connect the nation
2. move people and products
3. spurred industrial growth
Communities lead to merchants, churches

Full transcript