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CEP 905: Media and Culture

A class discussion on Media and Culture; taking a look at the effects of video games and television on culture.
by

Sean Leahy

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of CEP 905: Media and Culture

Anderson & Bushman (2001) Research Questions: Is exposure to violent video games associated with increases in aggression?
How can exposure to violent video games increase aggression?
General Aggression Model Findings: Aggressive Behavior: Of the 3,033 participants they were able to determine that there was a positive and significant association with high video game violence and heightened aggression.

Prosocial Behavior: With the 676 participants it was reported that there was a significant negative effect with prosocial behavior and violent video games, leading the authors to state that violent video games case (at least a temporary) decrease in prosocial behavior.

Aggressive Cognition: Violent video games were found to increase short-term aggressive thoughts in males, females, children, and adults alike.

Aggressive Affect: Violent video games increased the aggressive affect in males and females, adults and children alike.

Physiological Arousal: Violent video games increase arousal in participants based on three factors: systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate.
<script>
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</script> youtube > popular video games GEARS of WAR 2 GOD of WAR 3 DIll et al, (2002) Research Rationale: Looking at the prevalence of violence in video games, primary research interest was on the relation between the characters sex, race, and age and their roles of power, dominance and aggression. Results: •Of the 20 games tested, 60% have violence as a major theme, and 50% of the same 20 games were classified as life-form violence.

•Among the violent games 92% included real weapons that are available in the real world.

•83% of the violent video games received high scores for how instrumental the aggression was in the game.

•Male adults comprised the majority of all main characters (70%), of the male characters 77% where white.

•For secondary characters, 72% where white.

•Targeted characters, 89% of the targets in the game where human.

•Most games rewarded aggressive violent acts in game play.
Discussion Question? If video games are predominately comprised of white aggressive males in positions of power, how might this characterization impact the developmental effects of playing video games on gender? Graves (1999) Research Question: How does watching TV contribute to the development of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination among children? Results: 1. Amount: Absence of ethic group=unimportant, inconsequential, powerless

2. Programming is overwhelmingly European American--racial/ethnic groups underrepresented (“white-wash” 1999-2000 NAACP threatens boycott -- 4 networks add minority characters)

3. PBS more diverse than prime time TV programming including ethnic/racial, disability status

4. Ads during children’s programming more diverse than during adult programming

5. African-Americans more likely to be shown than other ethnic groups

6. Asians and European Americans are over-represented in ads in proportion to the USA population

7.Visable ethnic groups were more likely to be presented as criminals

8. Stereotyped through segregated programming (comedies, on specific networks) isolation=reinforces idea of limited power and influence in society

9. Inter-group interactions -limited, superficial, public setting
Discussion Questions: The United States is becoming more diverse with multiple ethnic and racial groups. What obligation to the public does TV programmers have to ensure a balance of representation from the different groups in television broadcasting? If TV is a media mode of transmitting the culture, entertainment and news? Who determines what is presentable for public viewing? (Sponsors, government, public opinion) CEP 905 Sean M. Leahy Terrie Hylton 4.28.10 Media and Culture Discussion Questions: According to the General Aggression Model, aggression is based on a cyclical model in which social encounters influence the internal state of the individual, which then determine the outcomes that feed back into the social encounter. Do you agree with this model? The authors of this article hypothesize that exposure to violent video games may increase long-term aggressive behavior; do you think that violent video games affect individuals more so than playing competitive contact sports?
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