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Socials 9- English Civil War
Transcript of Socials 9- English Civil War
He spoke with a heavy Scottish accent, as he had been the king of Scotland for twenty years before taking over in England.
He was slovenly, and his tongue was too big for his mouth. James did do some good things while he was king, such as publishing anti-smoking pamphlets and creating the King James version of the bible, but he was still a tyrant. He gave noble titles to incompetent people, which insulted many citizens. He was always short on money. James was allied with the Church of England, and had many issues with Parliament and the Puritans. He went out of his way to make them angry, and found great joy in doing so. James died of stomach problems in 1625, leaving the crumbling nation to his son, Charles I. Charles I Charles believed in the Divine Right of Kings and did not want to compromise with parliament, just like his father. He was aloof and narrow-minded. Charles was always looking for ways to make money, so he could spend it on extravagant luxuries. Charles relied on his father's favourite advisor, the Duke of Buckingham, but he was greatly despised and lead the king into many disasters. Charles had managed to alienate many people within just a few short years of his reign. Absolute Monarch: a king, queen, emperor, or empress with unlimited powers Tyrant: a cruel and unjust ruler or person Slovenly: untidy, dirty, careless in dress, appearance, and habits The Divine Right of Kings: a way of thinking in which kings believed that their power and right to rule came directly from God. They believed that they were God's direct representative on earth; NO ONE should question them, and they should have absolute power. Incompetent: lacking ability To Ally: to combine with for a special purpose To Compromise: to settle a dispute, with both sides giving up a part of what they demand The Fight with Parliament Many of Charles's difficulties came from the fact that he constantly wanted more money. He could get money from Parliament, but first he had to accept their conditions. So instead he found some rather unpopular ways to make money, without going to Parliament. These included taxing ship money, forcing people to make loans to him, mortgaging royal properties, billeting soldiers, using the secret Court of Star Chamber against his enemies, and much more. This worked for Charles at first, but he soon realized it was impossible to get all of the money he wanted without Parliament's help. He then recalled the parliament, hoping they would be ore reasonable, but his hopes were dashed immediately. Instead, the Parliament said they would only grant Charles more money if he signed a charter called the "Petition of Right". Charles dissolved the Parliament once more and vowed to rule without it. The Civil War The Triumph Of Parliament When the Duke of Buckingham was assassinated, Charles mourned, and then hired Lord Stafford and Archbishop Laud as his new advisors. They were both very unpopular. Laud annoyed the puritans so much, that he caused them to violently riot, destroying many priceless artifacts. The Long Parliament Charles had managed to alienated the English People in both religious and political ways by 1637. He then set out to do the same to the Scottish people, trying to force them to lose their Presbyterian ways and worship in the style of the Church of England. The Scots signed an agreement against this and revolted, which totally humiliated Charles. Once again, Charles desperately needed money, this time for soldiers to stop the revolt. He formed a new parliament, called the "Short Parliament", but they sympathized with the Scots, and were angrily shut down within three weeks by Charles. Because he had not solved his money problems, he called a new parliament which sat for thirteen years, aptly named the Long Parliament. Charles had hoped they would give him what he wanted, but the new Parliament was even more unfriendly. The Long Parliament forced Charles to hand over Laud and Strafford, who were then executed. Parliament then managed to pass the Grand Remonstrance, which would take away many of the king's powers. Charles acted out by unlawfully invading the House of Commons and trying to arrest the leaders. That plan had failed, but his actions lead to the start of the English Civil War. Civil War was terrible because it forced citizens of the same country to fight against each other, tearing families apart. The English Civil War began in Nottingham, in 1642,and lasted for seven years. Three were a few difference between Charles's army and Parliament's. Charles's supporters were used to fighting and riding, as they came from royal families. They were called "Royalists" or "Cavaliers". Parliament's troop came from local farmers and townspeople with almost no experience. However, Parliament did have one advantage: they controlled the navy, along with the richest part of England. Charles was successful at first, but that all changed when parliament made an alliance with the Scots. The leader of this "New Model Army"was a Puritan by the name of Oliver Cromwell. His soldiers were called Roundheads; they were very religious, strict, and well equipped. The New Model Army defeated the Royalists at two major battles, Marston Moor and Naseby. Charles had no choice but to flee to Scotland, where he was imprisoned and handed over to Parliament. Church Of England: the established church in England, headed by the monarch The Rump Parliament Many members of Parliament who had voted against the Grand Remonstrance left to fight for the king when the civil war first began.The Parliament was then left to the Presbyterians and Puritans, who always disagreed, especially on the way the churches were ran. Extravagance: careless and lavish spending, wastefulness The Presbyterians had no objections to the return of King Charles, as long as he agreed to limited powers. The Puritans, however, wanted to end the monarchy. Charles always tried to play both sides, and was very dishonest. When rebellions broke out in support of the king, 143 Presbyterian members were driven out of Parliament by Colonel Pride. The "Rump Parliament" left by "Pride's Purge" charged the king with treason and making war on his own people. He was then to face a trial of life or death. The Trial of The King The charge of treason against the king in 1649 was legendary. At the time, the definition of treason was the act of trying to overthrow the king, which meant Charles was actually on trial for trying to overthrow himself! He thought this was absolutely absurd.Charles hit his walking stick against the ground at one point during the trial, and the gold head fell off. Everyone took it as an evil omen, and the king was then sentenced to death. Charles was determined to die with dignity, so he wore his finest clothes and put on a brave face. On a January day at one o' clock, he gave a short speech, and was then executed. The execution of Charles I did not turn England into a republic, as his son, Charles II, was the rightful heir. The English republic, or "Commonwealth", actually came into being when the Rump Parliament voted to get rid of the monarchy and the House of Lords. Because there were only 60 members, many citizens thought that the Rump Parliament had no right to make a decision for over half of England. However, the Rump was supported by the victorious Roundhead army, and they threatened to attack anyone who went against them. Ireland and Scotland were both strong supporters of the Royalist cause and Charles II, making them a big threat. Parliament then sent Oliver Cromwell and his army to defeat them. Even though Cromwell was a master soldier, he had no sympathy for the Catholics and Presbyterians he destroyed. After two major battles he had defeated the Scots and ended their resistance. Cromwell then moved on to Ireland, starting a brutal massacre. All Catholic landowners were forced to resettle in the southwestern regions of Ireland. Northern Ireland was resettled with the English and Scottish Protestants, making it the stronghold of the Protestants in Ireland. The Lord Protector Cromwell eventually lost patience with the ineffective Rump Parliament, mainly because they had denied his request for money for the army. Cromwell then marched in with his soldiers and forced the members of parliament out, locking the doors and placing the key in his pocket. From then on, the senior army officers called Oliver Cromwell the Lord Protector of England. Cromwell divided the country up into districts, which he ruled through major-generals who were each responible for law, order, and collecting taxes in their district. He imposed Blue Laws outlawing many ceremonies, such as Christmas. He also forbade dancing, gambling, sports, and the theatre. He was extremely unpopular, but too strong to be overthrown. Despite all of his achievements, Cromwell considered himself to be a failure, as he had become the very dictator he opposed of in the first place. When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard proved incapable of ruling the nation, which brought an end to to the republican experiment. The Restoration General Monk, the commander of the army in the north, returned to Westminster after Cromwell's death and recalled the Long Parliament. Monk knew that if the Parliament was not restored soon, Civil War would break out once again. He ordered the old parliament to dissolve itself and called for a new election. The monarchy and the House of Lords was restored in 1660, and Charles II was invited to become king, which was a very popular decision. The people of England wanted nothing to do with military dictatorships, they were concerned about the lack of Parliament, and they hated the Blue Laws. Everyone rejoiced when Charles II returned as king. The Parliament did, however, insist that Charles ruled as a constitutional monarch. This was a wise decision, as Charles was sneaky and manipulative, trying to regain what his father had lost through persuasion, bribery, and blackmail. Charles was fun-loving though, and he quickly dissolved the Blue laws. Charles had thirteen members of the Rump Parliament hanged, drawn, and quartered, an absolutely gruesome punishment. This happened because they were regicides. Criminal's dead bodies were cut into four sections and displayed around the country, as a warning to others. When King Charles tried to protect the religious freedom of the Catholics, the new Parliament passed the Test Act. Because of this act, many Catholics were denied job opportunities. Charles's own brother had to give up his position as High Admiral. Parliament wanted to make it clear that they made the rules, not Charles. In 1685, Charles died, and was succeeded by his Catholic Brother, James II. The Glorious Revolution James II was openly catholic. This created a problem for Parliament, as England was very anti-Catholic at this time. A man named Titus Oates had caused a major panic a few years earlier when he spread a rumour about a Catholic plot to take over the country. James intended to return England to it's Catholic roots. He ignored the Test Act, and was a strong believer in the Divine Right of Kings, which infuriated Parliament. All of a sudden the support for James vanished, and many rebellions broke out. After a rebellion in support of Charles's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, James set out on a rain of terror. Courts were conducted by Judge Jeffries, executing so many people suspected of being rebels that the trials became known as the "Bloody Assizes". Because Parliament was extremely distressed by the king's action, they invited his Protestant daughter Mary and her Husband William of Orange to become king and queen of England. James's supporters, fled the country, and eventually James did too, abdicating the throne. This event has become known as the "Glorious Revolution". The monarch was now chosen by Parliament, and not hereditary right. The Divine Right of Kings was no more. Mary and William agreed to a new bill of rights, with terms that form the basis of the Canadian government we enjoy today. By Annalissa Richards The End England had had a parliament since Anglo-Saxon times, which the king used to consult with the powerful people of the land. The Magna Carta, forcefully signed by King John in 1215, stated that the king must rule lawfully and not introduce new taxes without consent from Parliament. It also explains how any person accused of a crime was granted the right to a trial by a jury of their peers.
By 1295, Parliament had taken on its present form. it included a House of Lords, which was made up of bishops and high church officials, and a House f Commons, consisting of wealthy landowners and townspeople. This setup was one step closer to the democratic system we have today. The seventeenth-century parliament, however, was not ready to surrender its powers to the monarch. To Despise: to hate, to scorn, to deny respect To Alienate: to cause someone to become indifferent or hostile Ship Money: in earlier times, coastal towns had to supply the king with ships, or their value in money. Charles I made all towns and landowners pay ship money. To Billet: to require homeowners to provide food and lodging for soldiers Court of Star Chamber: a royal court in which people had no legal rights Title: a name showing a person's rank and position in life. Charles I forced anyone with property worth forty pounds or more to pay him a large fee to become a knight. Presbyterian: a Protestant church governed by presbyters (elders) Blue Laws: strict laws Regicide: a person who kills, or participates in the killing of, a king Test Act: an act forbidding anyone except members of the Church of England from holding political office or entering the professions To Abdicate: to give up or renounce