Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Progressive State at War

No description

Jarod Roll

on 12 September 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Progressive State at War

Progressive State at War

HIS 305
Broad Impact of the War:
--fashioned a new American nationalism
--newly powerful federal government with greater influence and control over the states, economy, and individuals
--these changes were real, but often not admitted or generally understood
Fighting War:
--took almost a year for US to enter the fight in Europe
--fresh momentum to Allied forces, key to summer/fall 1918 campaign that forced German surrender (November 11, 1918)
Mobilizing to Fight:
--white southerners in charge of federal bureaucracy:
--Josephus Daniels, NC, Sec. of Navy
--William G. McAdoo, GA, Sec. of Treasury
--Newton Baker, born WV, Sec. of War
--Bernard Baruch, SC, War Industries Board
--Wilson himself, VA
--using progressive state (created 1901-1914 under T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson's "New Freedom")
Big wars are expensive:
--Federal Reserve: created financial liquidity through money supply, interest rates
--Revenue Act of 1916: lowest income tax rate raised from 1 to 2 percent; richest people taxed at 15 percent
--in early 1917 federal budget equaled total federal spending from 1791 to 1916
--War Revenue Act of 1917: lowered exemptions and raised rates, still only 5% of Americans paid income taxes
--by end of 1918, income tax covered 1/3 of the war cost
Big wars demand big government:
--Food Administration: led by Herbert Hoover; combined appeals to voluntary participation with government coercion; broad power over food production, distribution, and price
--considered a success; Hoover became a hero
--Selective Service Act, 1917
War Industries Board:
--directed production, distribution, raw materials allocation, profit margins
--companies enticed into cooperation through promises of high profits
--led by Baruch, a wealthy banker
--government assumed power to supervise corporate conduct, coordinate corporate behavior for the public good (temporary, emergency)
--set important precedent for government intervention into economy in time of crisis
National War Labor Board:
--designed to mediate disputes between workers and employers to minimize strikes, disruptions
--supported the 8-hour day, equal pay for women, and right to join a union
--union membership grew during the war; American Federation of Labor increased by 1 million (50%)
--but tied labor gains to obedience to government war effort
--Donald Richberg, appeal for industrial democracy
Committee on Public Information:
--propaganda agency to boost popular support for the war; "fight for the minds of men" (recall popular opposition to involvement in 1916)
--directed by George Creel
--shaped movies, songs, posters
--"four minute singing"--basis for Orwell's "two minutes of hate" in
--demonized Germans as subhuman brutes
--used power of new consumer advertising experts
--Edward Bernays: "conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses" to "pull the wires which control the public mind"
--faked news stories to build sympathy, outrage
Overman Act, 1918: gave Wilson retroactive executive power to reorganize the executive branch for the duration of the war
War Finance Corporation:
--new government loans, credit to fund industrial conversion and expansion
Railroad Administration:
--nationalized the entire American rail network
100% Americanism
--loyalty programs targeting immigrants, non-English speakers
--German-Americans, German-language schools and publications
--'Liberty Cabbage," etc.
--Loyalty Leagues
--voluntary vigilante groups policed immigrant neighborhoods
Government enforced loyalty:
--Espionage Act, 1917
--targeted foreign-language publications, Left-wing publications, groups
--Sedition Act, 1918
--illegal to make "disloyal utterances, and disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the government, the flag, the constitution, or the military
--many imprisoned, including Eugene Debs
Racial violence:
--mass violence in East St. Louis, 1917
--mob of whites attacked African Americans after some were hired in a local aluminum factory
--100-200 killed; national guard troops sent to end the violence joined in
NAACP became popular among ordinary African Americans in response:
--James Weldon Johnson
--developed into a mass organization with new grassroots popularity in the South
Wilson's Fourteen Points, January 1918:
--set idealistic goals for the war
--freedom of the seas, free trade, self-determination of peoples
--organization of nations to guarantee these things
--18th amendment (prohibition): passed in 1917, ratified in 1919
--19th amendment (women's voting): proposed in 1918, but not ratified until 1920)
Election of 1918:
--would Americans agree to Wilson's vision of the post-war world
--looking to post-war treaty negotiations
--Republicans took Senate and the House
--Henry Cabot Lodge became Senate majority leader, in charge of any treaty ratification
--opposed to permanent American internationalism
Full transcript