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Transcript of Chapter 2
Spanish & Portuguese Empires 1580-1640
Spain's attempts to control colonization of the Western Hemisphere involved converting the native population to Christianity and exploiting their labor.
The French & Dutch tried to strengthen their colonial territories by making trade alliances and intermarriages with American Indians to get access to trade goods such as furs to export to Europe.
Roanoke Island, 1585
British colonization was based on agriculture. There was abundant fertile land available.
Joint stock companies formed to take advantage of opportunities in N. America.
The Virginia Company was one. It's charter granted colonists all the same rights of as Englishmen.
Despite the colonies attracting many British people, there weren't enough to provide needed labor.
There weren't enough indentured servants & native peoples were difficult to fend off, much less enslave.
Q: How do you think the British colonists dealt with this labor shortage problem
1588 - defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British
Remember the Canary Islands?
The British slave system was driven by a combination of economics and beliefs in racial and cultural superiority.
Slavery altered gender and kinship relationships in the colonies. It led to wars with Africans in Africa and to rebellions from those already in bondage.
Anglo-Powhatan Wars took place between the Virginia native Americans and the Jamestown colonies. Jamestown teetered on the brink of extinction.
However, eventually the Indians fell to the three Ds:
The husband of Pocahontas became the father of tobacco. Virginia colonists were soon obsessed with growing it.
Slave Code of 1661 - Formally codified (made law) that African slaves had no rights and were under the complete control of masters.
Virginia House of Burgesses,
a mini-parliament formed in the same year slavery was introduced.
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