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Lindsay Mitchell

on 21 September 2017

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Transcript of Islam

(570 - 1400s)

Section 1
The Origins of Islam
Islam first emerged in the harsh desert lands of Arabia. Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, united Arabs under Muslim rule.
Section 2
The Beliefs of Islam
Islam is based on the belief in one God, called Allah, whose word is recorded in the sacred text of the Qur'an. Five religious duties for the pillars of Islam: faith, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage
Section 3
The Spread of Islam
Islam spread through wars of conquest and by peaceful conversion. Today, it is the world's second-largest religion.
A Difficult Land
-it is nearly surrounded by water with the Persian Gulf to the east,
the Arabian Sea to the south and the Red Sea to the west
-Arab sailors crossed those seas to trade with East Africa, India, and
-Arabians were able to avoid foreign conquest mostly due to the harsh environment
-most of the land is desert with the Nafud desert in the north separating Arabia from the rest of southwest Asia and the Rub al-Jhali, or "Empty Quarter" covering much of the Arabian interior to the south
-a range of high rugged mountain runs along the western and southern edges of the Arabian Peninsula
-there is more rainfall here and conditions are better for settlement
-there is little water and no permanent rivers
-people would rely on
for survival
is a fertile place in the desert where a spring or
well provides a water supply
A Tribal Culture
-two ways of life existed in ancient Arabia

-people move from place to place with no fixed home
-people settled in an oasis town or trade center
-nomadic and sedentary Arabs were organized in tribes
-their main loyalty was to tribe and family, rather than to rulers

The Story of Muhammad
The Arabian Setting
-Arabia is a peninsula that is over 1000 miles long located in southwest Asia, between Mesopotamia and Africa
Sacred Writings
-Muslims recognize the Jewish Torah and the Christian Gospels as holy books, but the most sacred book is the
- the Muslim holy book
The Qu'an
-for Muslims, the Qur’an is the word of God
-it is the record of the revelations to Muhammad over a period of 22 years
-the revelations began when Muhammad was in a cave in 610 and ended when he died in 632
-Muhammad recited the words that were revealed to him and his followers memorized those revelations
-the Qur’an was completed 19 years after Muhammad’s death and has remained unchanged since then
-it consists of 114 chapters made up of verses discussing the nature of God, creation, and the human soul - also moral, legal, and family issues
-much of the language is highly poetic
The Sunnah
-the other key source of Islamic thought is the Sunnah, or traditions of the prophet
-the Sunnah refers to the words and actions of Muhammad himself
-provides Muslims with guidelines for living a proper life and also helps Muslims interpret difficult parts of the Qur’an
-it is based on accounts of people who knew Muhammad during his lifetime
-those people recorded his thoughts and actions in a collection of writings called the Hadith
-the Hadith is the written record of the Sunnah
-many of the passages deal with Islamic Law and others promote moral or ethical concepts
-Muslims consider Muhammad to be the perfect model for their own behavior because God chose him as the prophet
-by following the Sunnah, Muslims know they are being faithful to Islamic principles
Core Beliefs
-the principle belief is the existence of one God, called Allah
-God created the universe and all things in it
-there is only one God in Islam and there is no human figure that represents God
-Muhammad was a prophet , but had no divine power himself
-this sets Islam apart from Christianity, which recognizes Jesus as the Son of God
The Soul and Afterlife
-Muslims believe that each person has an individual and eternal soul
-everyone has the freedom to choose between good and evil and the choices a person makes in life affect what happens after death
-Muslims believe that the afterlife is spent in either heaven or hell
-on a future day God will judge mankind and decide who will be saved
-those who have obeyed God’s words and surrendered their lives to God go to heaven
-the word Islam means “surrender” in Arabic
-to be a Muslim means to surrender, or make a total commitment to God
The Five Pillars
-Muslims have five key religious duties known as the Five Pillars
Muhammad's Early Life
The Rise of Islam
The Hijra
Muslim Expansion
-The spread of Muslim rule took place in three phases
-conquests by Arab armies
-conquests by non-Arab armies
-the peaceful spread of Islam by merchants and missionaries
Islam Today
-Islam is still growing and spreading today and it is the religion of many people around the world
Early Conquests
Background Knowledge
-During the same time period that Christianity was spreading throughout Europe, Islam was emerging in the south
was the prophet on whose teachings the Islamic religion is based
-Islam is based on the worship of one god like Christianity
were known as Bedouins
-they lived in rural areas where they herded sheep and goats-they used camels to cross the desert stopping at oases for water, food, and supplies
-they were independent and skilled at warfare, sometimes raiding other tribes to get animals and goods
-lived mainly as farmers and traders
-farmers lived on oases and traders lived
in towns along the main trade routes
-trade brought wealth and people from many parts of the world including Jews and Christians
-The largest town, Mecca was a bustling commercial center
-around 570
was born in Mecca

-when Muhammad was born, Mecca was a trading city, but it was also a religious center
-an important shrine called the
was located in Mecca and every year a religious fair drew thousands of people to Mecca
-Muhammad was orphaned at an early age and raised by his uncle
-at the age of 25 he married a wealthy, widowed merchant named
-Muhammad prospered in business and became a wealthy and respected member of the community
-Muhammad was critical of Meccan society because of all the greed, corruption, and violence that he saw
-he went to a cave to pray and reflect and according to Islamic beliefs, one night in 610 he had a vision and began to receive revelations
-the angel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad and told him to spread God’s word
-he doubted his vision at first, but his wife told him to have faith and according to Muslim teaching, when the visions continued, Muhammad became convinced that the revelations were
-Muhammad began preaching in the streets of Mecca telling Arabs to worship the one true God, called
in Arabic
-he told them to give up their sinful ways
-he told them that Allah was the same God who had spoken to Abraham, Jesus, and the other prophets of Judaism and Christianity
-even though he respected those religions, he claimed to be the final prophet with the most complete version of God’s truth
-this religion is called Islam
-over time, he began to win believers, which were called
, or followers of Islam
-many Arabs were hostile toward Muhammad and his followers and they began to persecute them
-in 622 Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca for the town
of Yathrib located north of Mecca
-Yathrib was later renamed Medina, meaning “city of the prophet”
-this flight from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) is known as the Hijra
-Muhammad kept teaching in Medina and became Medina’s political and military leader
-he led raiding parties on Mecca and its caravan trade and eventually Mecca’s resistance crumbled
-in 630 he returned to Mecca as a conqueror, banning the worship of other gods and proclaiming Islam to be the religion of Arabia
-more and more people began converting to Islam and eventually most of the Arabian Peninsula was united under Muslim rule
-two years later Muhammad died, but under the banner of Islam, Arabs launched a campaign of conquest across the Middle East
Background Knowledge
-Islam is based on the worship of the same God that inspired the Jewish and Christian religions
-Muslims honor the Jewish and Christian prophets
-Muslims believe that Muhammad revealed the purest version of God’s truth
Reciting the Qur'an
-Muslims believe that because the Qur’an is the word of God, it should be studied in its original language Arabic
-Muslims study the Qur’an with great devotion, some even carrying a copy with them wherever they go, committing passages to memory
-parents recite the Qur’an to their babies and children get their first records in reading and writing from the Qur’an
-“There is no God but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God.”
-Muslims recite this phrase often as evidence of their faith
Declaration of Faith
-Muslims are expected to pray five times a day
-in many parts of the Muslim world a
, a prayer caller, announces the times of prayer from the tower of a
, or Muslim house of worship
-the duty of all Muslims to share their wealth with those less fortunate by giving
, or

goods or money given to the poor or needy
Fasting during the month of Ramadan
means not eating or drinking for a period of time
is the month in which Muhammad received his first revelation and
during this month Muslims are to eat no food between daybreak and sunset to show their submission to God and remind them of the hunger of the poor
Pilgrimage, or
is a journey to a sacred place or shrine
-the sacred destination for Muslim pilgrims is
, the holy city of Islam
-the Qur’an requires every Muslim to make the
at least once, if possible
-Muslims from all parts of the world travel to Mecca every year, which strengthens the community of Islam
-during the
, Muslims take part in many rituals including circling the
is a cubelike building, within which resides a sacred black stone
-Muslims believe that the black stone was sent from heaven in ancient times
-pilgrims circle the
seven times hoping to touch or kiss the stone at least once
-over many centuries, the touch of pilgrims has worn the stone smooth
Background Knowledge
-by the time Muhammad died, most people on the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam
-before launching wars of conquest, Muhammad’s followers had to choose a new leader after he died and they had to win back the loyalty of Arab tribes who had broken away
Abu Bakr
-man chosen as the leader by the leaders of a dominant group within the Muslim community, he was called the
,or successor to lead Islam
-set out to regain control of the Arabian Peninsula and brought the rebel tribes back under Muslim control
Building an Empire
Umar ibn al-Khattab
was the next
Abu Bakr
-spread Islam to the nearby lands of Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Syria, and then moved on to Persia and Egypt
-under other caliphs Islam moved into Afghanistan and India, across Africa and into Spain
-just 100 years after Muhammad’s death, Muslims had built an enormous empire
Reasons for Success
-the decline of the Byzantine and Persian empires
-years of warfare left these empires weak and vulnerable
-the skill of the Arab armies
-they were experts in the use of soldiers on horseback
-the energy and religious zeal of Arab warriors
-they fought under the banner of
, which is a holy struggle or war
-in Arabic,
refers to striving hard in God’s cause
-it can mean a person’s internal struggle to live by Muslim principles or it can mean waging war to spread the Islamic faith
Religious Tolerance
-Arabs were tolerant of other religions and allowed people their own customs and beliefs
Khalid ibn al-Walid
was an Arab general that promised the people of Damascus that no harm would come to them as long as they pay the poll tax
-Jews and Christians were generally respected as “People of the Book”
-they did not have the same legal status and they had to pay a special tax, but they were allowed to practice their own faith and follow their own laws
-the appeal of Islam itself was also a factor in the successful spread of Islam
-Islam emphasizes the equality of all believers and their is no priestly class monitoring people’s behavior
Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples
-in the second phase, Islam spread through conquests by non-Arab people
-these people converted to Islam while visiting Arab lands and when they returned to their home lands, they took Islam with them
Merchants and Missionaries
-the third phase in the spread of Islam was peaceful
-Muslim merchants traveled to new lands to trade and they took their faith with them
-often missionaries accompanied the traders to spread the word of God
The Growth of Modern Islam
-Islam is the world’s second largest religion next to Christianity
-more than one billion people are Muslims, one fifth of the global population
-less than 20% of Muslims are Arabs
-nearly half of all Muslims live in South and Southeast Asia
-several million Muslims live in the United States
Divisions of Islam
-there are two main groups
the majority Islamic sect
the largest minority Islamic sect
-the origins of these two sects are political, not religious
-originally the division among Muslims was over who would be Muhammad’s successor when he died
-after he died most Arabs believed that the caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community and the majority group that supported
Abu Bakr
, became known as the
-other followers believed that Muhammad’s relatives should become caliph
-this group, the
, felt that Muhammad’s relatives were inspired by God and the favored Muhammad’s cousin and closest relative,
Ali ibn Abu Talib
-he did become caliph eventually, but the split between the

-despite the division, Muslims around the world are united in their basic beliefs
-they worship one God
-the revere the word of God as revealed to Muhammad in the Qur’an
-they accept the Five Pillars as guidelines to a proper life
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