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Music Unit Part 1

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Abigail Lewsader

on 16 May 2018

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Transcript of Music Unit Part 1

Basic Elements of Music
Welcome to the Music Unit!
Music is all around us!
Where does music originate?
Earliest Music
June 2009, Archaeologists unearthed the world's oldest musical instruments:
flutes made of vulture bone and mammoth tusks
Theories on Basic Origins of Music
A. Need to Communicate
A song "speaks" to you
Truly connects with you and your feelings at the moment
One of the oldest musical theories
Music communicate emotions and thoughts

Ancient Egyptians

The god
gave humanity
basic sounds
Ancient Chinese philosophy

Nature ruled by a divine principle of order
Music was the human connection to order
Ancient Greeks
Plato's "music of the spheres"
Heavens were divided into
eight spheres
with one siren in each
Each siren sang one note of astounding sweetness
Together their song represents eternal order or
"armonia of the universe"
Where we get the term "harmony" today in English?


Music was indeed a
branch of mathematics
. In turn if we look at a sheet of music today in order to produce the music successfully attention to numbers must be paid.
1. Tone
2. Scale
3. Rhythm
4. Melody
5. Harmony and the Orchestra
6. Silence
Tone - a single note played
Caused by the frequency of sound-wave vibrations
The higher the frequency the higher the tone and vice versa
Tone is created by
A) The human voice
B) A musical instrument
In both cases, the same vibratory frequency is created regardless of its duration.

According to your text,
"True music began when someone experimented with a variety of tones, some higher, some lower."
Did you know tone can be seen as well as heard?
Multiple tones lead to the next basic element - scale.
- orderly progression of frequencies from low to high

A) Pentatonic scale
Found in traditional Asian and African music
Consists of

B) Diatonic scale
Consists of
seven tones

Found in Western music
Do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti

C) Chromatic scale
Consists of
twelve tones

Diatonic scale with additions of sharps and flats (half tones)
When you play the piano using the white keys plus the black keys, you are playing the twelve-tone, or chromatic scale.
This video is an example of the diatonic scale and chromatic scale.

Rhythm - alternation between stress and unstressed.
Did you know written accounts of rhythm date back to the early Greeks?
Rhythm accompaniment
Found in ritual events
Funeral or a rite of passage celebrating the arrival of puberty
Rhythm was the underlying factor in early Greek ceremonies.

Just think about it, clap your hands, tap your feet - it is hard not to find rhythm. If you have ever played or preformed any type of music, one of the first things a student is taught is how to keep the beat.

Music is the combination of
different elements.

Master of Melody - Tchaikovsky
A significant sequence of musical tones
Forms a unity, like a sentence of prose
A flowing sequence that may or may not have a final end
The part we remember of a song or a symphonic movement

Did you know?
This scene from
V for Vendetta
features the end to one of the most famous pieces done by Tchaikovsky, 1812 Overture.

Melody's Influence on current music
The importance of melody is not gone or lost on today's music.... (note curse words)
Asian music
- tones usually played individually
Western music
- simultaneous production of two or more tones
Renaissance important?
Previously, majority of music preformed in unison in praise to God.
Renaissance - individual became important, multiple sounds
Renaissance allows idea of harmony and the orchestra

In contrast to larger orchestras there is
chamber music
- concert music written for a few instruments.
How is silence apart of music?
Isn't it the opposite of it?
In music the spaces - or silences - between notes are equally important.
Composer John Cage is famous for having incorporated silence into his work and making it as important as the actual notes he wrote down for musicians to play.
John Cage (1912-1992)
Listen to Cage's 4'33"

Insisted the "notes are silent" but that they are all the same
Basic elements combined
and for laughs...
B. Need to Imitate Nature
Why wait for music to occur?
Music in nature:
Ancient people believed natural sounds were voices of the gods.
Sounds from nature meant you actually heard the gods speaking.
Full transcript