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11 Propaganda Techniques
Transcript of 11 Propaganda Techniques
Techniques 2. Name Calling 5. Plain Folks,
a.k.a. Common Man 4. Glittering Generalities,
aka: Intentional Vagueness 1. Bandwagon : 3. Testimonial 9. Appeal to Fear 6. Transfer 10. Flag Waving THANK YOU!!!!!!!!! AND... Whose voices guide your choices? a: Inevitable Victory b. Join the Crowd 7. Emotional Words 8. Faulty Reasoning, a.k.a. Rationalization How do you decide
who is the best candidate... http://cdn.aarp.net/content/dam/aarp/social_change/politics/2012-01/540-republican-candidates-2012-president.imgcache.rev1325778124719.jpg ... or which phone to buy? Looking for facts
to back up your choice
is an excellent idea... but WHO, exactly,
is presenting those facts? http://americandigest.org/pinocchio.jpg http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2010/images/02/16/fact.check.jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/ICyKqfgQBTo/TcQdQFRhTUI/AAAAAAAAABk/lZYEwMN-rXk/s1600/best+cell+phones+2011.jpg "Propaganda is
the deliberate, systematic attempt
to shape perceptions,
and direct behavior
to achieve a response
that furthers the desired intent
of the propagandist."
(Garth Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell,
Propaganda and Persuasion, 4th ed.
Sage Publications, p. 7) Understand that: one-sided communication
designed to influence
people’s thinking and actions Your definition: Propaganda can be used
to promote admirable causes: http://edu.glogster.com/media/5/20/51/55/20515546.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_d7wcSvqNGHU/TMcMPalc8bI/AAAAAAAAHyw/IjAoG_V3gco/s1600/8-united-we-stand.jpg But propaganda
is also used
to manipulate: Propaganda
is used by: military news outlets advertisers politicians you & me We've learned: propaganda can support just causes... send important public messages: or attempt to conrol you: When we make our own choices we:
read & listen to reliable sources.
watch for combinations of truths & lies.
check for hidden messages.
watch for propaganda techniques. Above all, we listen to our own voices. http://students.davincischools.org/katherine_davis/images/220px-Destroy_this_mad_brute_WWI_propaganda_poster_US_version.gif Inevitable Victory invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory.
Those already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is their best course of action. JOIN THE CROWD reinforces people's natural desire to be on the winning side.
This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest to join. Propagandists use the name-calling technique to incite fears and arouse prejudices in their audience with the intent that the bad names will cause hearers to construct a negative opinion about a group or set of beliefs or ideas that the propagandist would wish hearers to denounce. The method is removed from the impartial examinations of facts. Name-calling is thus a substitute for rational, fact-based arguments against an idea or belief on its own merits. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. The reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is exploited. This is done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the authority's opinions and beliefs as its own. "It worked for me!" Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own interpretations rather than simply being presented with an explicit idea. The "plain folks" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their point of view with that of the average person. Also known as association, this is a technique that involves projecting the positive or negative qualities of one person, entity, object, or value onto another to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional response, which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities. Often highly visual, this technique often utilizes symbols superimposed over other visual images. These symbols may be used in place of words; for example, placing swastikas on or around a picture of an opponent to associate the opponent with Naziism. These are words in the value system of the target audience that produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, "The Truth", etc. are virtue words. In countries such as the U.S. religiosity is seen as a virtue, making associations to this quality affectively beneficial. Rationalization attempts to explain or justify behavior or attitude with logical, plausible reasons, even if these are not true or appropriate. Using this technique, individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs. Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population. An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so will make one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a group, country, or idea. The feeling of patriotism this technique attempts to inspire may not necessarily diminish or entirely omit one's capability for rational examination of the matter in question.