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Transcript of Text
refers to the fact that texts are linked to other texts
what is a text?
- from the late 1960s onwards ‘text’ replaced (literary) ‘work’; in 80s ‘textuality’ emerged;
An environment of a text belonging to the same sign system.
cotext & context
discourse = language in action
- a text in a context (van Dijk)
- the organisation of enunciations in a particular area of human activity (Foucault)
written - spoken
1. the attribute of being a text does not inhere in any given object; textuality is assigned by the reader
2. a text is constructed by abstracting verbal content from its material embodiment
cohesion (linguistic orderliness) & coherence (meaningfulness)
ex.: I have a brother. He lives in Canada.
I have a brother. Helena lives in Canada.
I have a brother. He is a body of saline water.
Bazerman: Almost every word and phrase we use we have heard or seen before.
a) The text may draw on prior texts as a source of meanings to be used at face value.
The title of the article “the weak link” invokes the old saying that “a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.”
b) Text may explicitly use other statements as background, support, and contrast.
e.g. my own quotation of Bazerman's phrase (Almost every word and phrase we use we have heard or seen before.)
c) Text may rely on beliefs, issues, ideas, statements generally circulated and likely familiar to the readers.
d) By using recognizable kinds of language, phrasing, and genres, a text ("intentionally") evokes particular social world.
"it is well known that," "most people believe that," "it is often thought that," "as you know"
"Ehyo, this rap is like ziti, facin' me real TV
Crash at high-speeds, strawberry, kiwi
As we approach, yo herb, the Gods bail
These Staten Island ferryboat cats bail
Fresh cellies, 50 thief up in the city
We banned for life, Apollo Kids live to spit the real"
e) Text relies on the available language of the period, and is part of the cultural world of the times.
“Thy name is more hateful than thy face.”
A text that forms a part of the complex mediation between text, author, publisher, and reader
e.g. titles, author's name, forewords, contents, indexes, references, appendices...
A text drawing on another text without being its commentary
most of texts are hypertexts is some way; hypertext is a native text of WWW using hyperlinks
commentary; a critical relation of a text to another text (with or without direct citation)
'I have never read Parsons because his books are extremely boring.'
An environment of a text belonging to a different (or no) sign system.
assigned by reader !
Don't ask me again! :-)
A text is a specific and unique realization of discourse.
Texts are produced by discourse, not vice versa.
The above is valid both in micro & macro perspectives.
= the study of sign systems
relation between signs and the things to which they refer
relations among signs in formal structures
signs and their effects on people who use them
A text consisting of elements of several sign systems.
What is a Text? In S. Titscher (ed.). Methods of text and discourse analysis. 2000.
Intertextuality. In Ch. Bazerman. What Writing Does and How It Does It. 2004.
1. Go to http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/ and choose any title page (today's or from archive).
a) Find various types of transtextual relations in the page (paratext, hypertext, metatext, cotext, context). Mark them out.
b) Find examples of various levels of intertextuality in the page (see Bazerman). Mark them out.
3. Save, scan or take a high resolution picture of the page with your marks and email it to me.
3. In the class: explain what types or relations you found and how could be included into a sociologically informed text analysis.
, the people."
"All human beings
free and equal in dignity and rights."
has the right
to life, liberty and security of person."
shall be subjected
to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."
Levels of intertextuality:
Mr Fillon called the investigation "a political assassination" against him.
"This article argues that the original thrust of the moral economy concept has been understated and attempts to cast it in a new light by bringing class and capital back into the equation."