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十字軍運動

教會歷史二
by

John Chan

on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of 十字軍運動

十字軍運動
crusade
「若你是當時的人,你同意重新奪回耶路撒冷嗎?」
投票
基督徒與戰爭
crucesignatus
cruce-signatus
crux crucis signo signatus
boni peregrini
十架
的標記
sign of the
cross
帶着十架的標記到聖地
十架的標記象徵上帝的權能與榮耀
十架的標記象徵救贖的大能
Urban II
烏爾班二世
(1042-1099)
Victor III
Gregory VII
Urban II
門生
敘任權鬥爭
24 May 1086- 16 September 1087
Urban II
France
Byzantine
Holy Roman Empire
Anti-Pope
沒甚麼比一起仇視某個人更能團結起兩個人
克萊芒會議
Council of Clermont
1095
against simony
solve the investiture
against clerical marriage
Deus lo volt
In the year of our Lord's Incarnation one thousand and ninety-five, a great council was celebrated within the bounds of Gaul, in Auvergne, in the city which is called Clermont. Over this Pope Urban II presided, with the Roman bishops and cardinals. This council was a famous one on account of the concourse of both French and German bishops, and of princes as well. Having arranged the matters relating to the Church, the lord pope went forth into a certain spacious plain, for no building was large enough to hold all the people. The pope-then, with sweet and persuasive eloquence, addressed those present in words something like the following, saying:

"Oh,
race of Franks, race from across the mountains, race beloved and chosen by God
, - as is clear from many of your works,- set apart from all other nations by the situation of your country as well as by your Catholic faith and the honor which you render to the holy Church: to you our discourse is addressed, and for you our exhortations are intended. We wish you to know what a grievous cause has led us to your country, for it is the imminent peril threatening you and all the faithful which has brought us hither.

From the confines of Jerusalem and from the city of Constantinople a grievous report has gone forth and has -repeatedly been brought to our ears; namely, that a race from the kingdom of the Persians, an accursed race, a race wholly alienated from God, `a generation that set not their heart aright and whose spirit was not steadfast with God,' violently invaded the lands of those Christians and has depopulated them by pillage and fire. They have led away ap art of the captives into their own country, and a part have they have killed by cruel tortures. They have either destroyed the churches of God or appropriated them for the rites of their own religion.
They destroy the altars, after having defiled them with their uncleanness....The kingdom of the Greeks is now dismembered by them
and has been deprived of territory so vast in extent that it could be traversed in two months' time.

"On whom, therefore, is the labor of avenging these wrongs and of recovering this territory incumbent, if not upon you, you upon whom, above all other nations, God has conferred remarkable glory in arms, great courage, bodily activity, and strength to humble the heads of those who resist you ? Let the deeds of your ancestors encourage you and incite your minds to manly achievements:-the greatness of King Charlemagne, and of his son Louis, and of your other monarchs, who have destroyed the kingdoms of the Turks and have extended the sway of Church over lands previously possessed by the pagan. Let the holy sepulcher of our Lord and Saviour, which is possessed by unclean nations, especially arouse you, and the holy places which are now treated, with ignominy and irreverently polluted with the filth of the unclean. Oh, most valiant soldiers and descendants of invincible ancestors, do not degenerate; our progenitors., but recall the valor of your progenitors.

"But if you are hindered by love of children, parents, or of wife, remember what the Lord says in the Gospel, `He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me', 'Every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life.' Let none of your possessions retain you, nor solicitude for you, family affairs. For this land which you inhabit, shut in on all sides by the seas and surrounded by the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; nor does it abound in wealth; and it furnishes scarcely food enough for its cultivators. Hence it is that you murder and devour one another, that you wage war, and that very many among you perish in intestine strife.'

[Another of those present at the Council of Clermont, Fulcher of Chartres, thus reports this part of Urban's speech: "Let those who have formerly been accustomed to contend wickedly in private warfare against the faithful fight against the infidel, and bring to a victorious end the war which ought already to have been begun. Let those who have hitherto been robbers now become soldiers. Let those who have formerly contended against their brothers and relatives now fight against the barbarians as they ought. Let those who have formerly been mercenaries at low wages now gain eternal rewards. Let those who have been exhausting themselves to the detriment both of body and soul now strive for a twofold reward" See a complete translation of Fulcher's report of Urban's speech in Translations and Reprints, Vol. 1. No. 2.]

"Let hatred therefore depart from among you, let your quarrels end, let wars cease, and let all dissensions and controversies slumber. Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulcher-, wrest that land from the wicked race, and subject it to yourselves. That land which, as the Scripture says, `floweth with milk and honey' was given by God into the power of the children of Israel. Jerusalem is the center of the earth ; the land is fruitful above all others, like another paradise of delights. This spot the Redeemer of mankind has made illustrious by his advent, has beautified by his sojourn, has consecrated by his passion, has redeemed by his death, has glorified by his burial.

"This royal city, however, situated at the center of the earth, is now held captive by the enemies of Christ and is subjected, by those who do not know God, to the worship the heathen. She seeks, therefore, and desires to be liberated and ceases not to implore you to come to her aid. From you especially she asks succor, because as we have already said, God has conferred upon you above all other nations great glory in arms. Accordingly, undertake this journey eagerly for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the reward of imperishable glory in the kingdon of heaven.."

When Pope Urban had urbanely said thes and very similar things, he so centered in one purpose the desires all who were present that all cried out, " It is the will of God! I It is the. will of God " When the venerable Roman pontiff heard that, with eyes uplifted to heaven, he gave thanks to God and, commanding silence with his hand, said:

"Most beloved brethren, today is manifest in you what the Lord says in the Gospel, `Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them'; for unless God had been present in your spirits, all of you would not have uttered the same cry; since, although the cry issued from numerous mouths, yet the origin of the cry as one. Therefore I say to you that God, who implanted is in your breasts, has drawn it forth from you. Let that then be your war cry in combats, because it is given to you by God. When an armed attack is made upon the enemy, this one cry be raised by
all the soldiers of God: 'It is the will of God! It is the will of God!' [Deus vult! Deus Vult!]

"And ee neither command nor advise that the old or those incapable of bearing arms, undertake this journey. Nor ought women to set out at all without their husbands, or brother, or legal guardians. For such are more of a hindrance than aid, more of a burden than an advantage. Let the rich aid the needy and according to their wealth let them take with them experienced soldiers. The priests and other clerks, whether secular or regulars are not to go without the consent of their bishop; for this journey would profit them nothing if they went without permission. Also, it is not fitting that laymen should enter upon the pilgrimage without the blessing of their priests.

"Whoever, therefore, shall
determine upon this holy pilgrimage, and shall make his vow to God to that effect, and shall offer himself to him for sacrifice, as a living victim, holy and acceptable to God
,
shall wear the sign of the cross of the Lord
on his forehead or on his breast. When, indeed, he shall return from his journey, having fulfilled his vow, let him place the cross on his back between his shoulders. Thus shall ye, indeed, by this twofold action, fulfill the precept of the Lord, as lie commands in the Gospel,
'he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me.
"'
十字軍講道
Crusade sermon
James of Vitry
Eudes de Châteauroux
Humbert of Romans
Bertrand de la Tour
講章模楷 (ad status sermon)
我因錫安必不靜默,
為耶路撒冷必不息聲,
直到他的公義如光輝發出,
他的救恩如明燈發亮。
以賽亞書 62:1
我又看見有一位天使,從日出之地上來,拿著永生
上帝的印
。他就向那得著權柄能傷害地和海的四位天使大聲喊著: 「地與海並樹木,你們不可傷害,等我們印了我們上帝僕人的額。」
啓示錄 7:2-3
耶利米書 4:6
應當向錫安豎立大旗。
要逃避,不要遲延,
因我必使災禍與大毀滅從北方來到。
他必向列國豎立大旗,
招回以色列被趕散的人,
又從地的四方聚集分散的猶大人。
以賽亞書 11:12
應當在淨光的山豎立大旗,向群衆揚聲招手,
使他們進入貴冑的門。
以賽亞書 13:2
世上一切的居民和地上所住的人呀,
山上豎立大旗的時候你們要看;
吹角的時候你們要聽。
以賽亞書 18:3
要在境内豎立大旗,
在各國中吹角,
使列國預備攻擊巴比倫
耶利米書 51:27
講道經文
viae Domini
pugna Dei
causa Christi
militia Christi
強調個人道德與敬虔,少提爭戰
強調與上帝的關係、跟隨基督(同死)
把十字軍看作爲贖罪的方法,死後能直接到達天堂
二分世上的人,標籤不願意爲主當十字軍的人
信息内容
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1095-1272
Historia Ierosolimitana
William of Tyre
1130 – 1186
READING TIME
10min
ST
crusade
1096–1099
Rhineland massacres
1096
30,000–35,000 crusaders
Princes' Crusade
拜占庭皇帝Alexios要求十字軍發誓效忠自己
穆斯林人
猶太人
大屠殺
1099
ETV
ND
crusade
Kingdom of Jerusalem
1099–1291
JIHAD
奮鬥、努力
Edessa淪陷!!
ETV
Bernard of Clairvaux
聖伯納德
中世紀神祕主義之父
譴責亞伯拉德的經院理性主義
為聖殿武士團制定規章
發起第二次十字軍
(4)為神而愛自己
Lectio Divina
愛的四個層次
(1)為自己而愛自己
(2)為自己而愛神
(3)為神而愛神
聖伯納德主張第二次十字軍
Louis VII
Bernard of Clairvaux
BREAK
15min
RD
crusade
Rise of Saladin
1138–1193
1147–1149
1187–1192
1187 2 Oct 重奪耶路撒冷
1187 4 Jul 哈丁戰役
1176 統一埃及與敘利亞
Barbarossa crusade
1190
Richard the Lion Heart
控制海邊
Siege of Acre
擊敗薩拉丁軍隊
成功佔領Jaffa,以Jaffa作基地
1157 – 1199
ETV
TH
crusade
Pope Innocent III
重奪耶路撒冷!
第四次十字軍開始!
1202–1204
威利斯
venice
Latin Empire 1204–1261
1204年4月13日攻陷君士坦丁堡
攻打扎拉城(Zara)
1261年,拉丁帝國被推翻,東羅馬帝國復國
其他十字軍運動
Reconquista
屠殺異端 Cathars
Shepherds' Crusade
Children's Crusade
1251
屠殺猶太人
兒童十字軍
1212
A. 同意
B. 認爲這問題沒有確實答案
C. 未想通
D. 不同意
分享:你對十字軍的看法
十字軍運動的影響與意義
Crusade theology
薩拉丁如何對待耶路撒冷的基督徒?
http://www.facebook.com
/theologia.autumnitas
陳韋安博士
建道神學院助理教授
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