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Chapter 8 Skin Disorders and Diseases

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gregory brassel

on 26 February 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 8 Skin Disorders and Diseases

Chapter 8

Skin Disorders and Diseases

Summary and Review (continued)

List the factors that contribute to the aging of the skin.
Explain the effect of overexposure to the sun on the skin.
What is contact dermatitis and explain how can it be prevented?

What is a skin lesion?
Name and describe at least five disorders of the sebaceous glands.

Summary and Review

Keep tools and surroundings clean (proper disinfection of brush handles, containers, surfaces, etc.).
Wear protective gloves.
Keep hands clean and moisturized.


Most common work-related skin disorder for cosmetology professionals
Caused by certain substances touching skin

Contact Dermatitis

Medical term for abnormal skin inflammation
Can result from contact with chemicals or tints
Allergies from product ingredients


80 to 85 percent of aging is caused by sun’s rays.
UVA rays – weaken the collagen and elastin fibers
UVB rays – burning rays that cause sunburn and tanning by affecting the melanocytes

The Sun and Its Effects

Genetic aging
Facial expressions

Intrinsic Skin Aging Factors

Cleansers and toners for oily skin
Follicle exfoliants
Avoidance of fatty skin-care products
Avoidance of harsh products

Acne Treatment

Retention hyperkeratosis – hereditary tendency for acne-prone skin to retain dead cells in the follicle
Propionibacterium acnes – anaerobic (cannot survive in the presence of oxygen)
Main food source – fatty acids

Acne and Problem Skin

A – Asymmetry
B – Border
C – Color
D – Diameter
E – Evolving

Skin Cancer Checklist

Changes in Skin Pigmentation

Hyperpigmention – darker than normal pigmentation, appearing as dark splotches
Hypopigmentation – absence of pigment, resulting in light or white splotches

Anhidrosis – lack of perspiration
Bromidrosis or osmidrosis – foul-smelling perspiration
Hyperhidrosis – excessive perspiration
Miliaria rubra – prickly heat

Sudoriferous Gland Disorders

Objectives (continued)

Understand the two major causes of acne and how to treat them.
List the factors that contribute to the aging of the skin.
Explain the effects of overexposure to the sun on the skin.
Understand what contact dermatitis is and how it can be prevented.

Recognize common skin lesions.
Describe the disorders of the sebaceous glands.
Name and describe changes in skin pigmentation.
Identify the forms of skin cancer.


“Attitude is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstances, than what people do or say. It is more important than appearance, giftedness, or skill.”

– Charles Swindoll


You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.

Summary and Review (continued)

Name and describe at least five changes in skin pigmentation.
Name and describe the three forms of skin cancer.
What are the two major causes of acne and how should they be effectively treated?

Caused when irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis
Examples: corrosive substances or exfoliating agents
Avoided by wearing gloves when working with irritating chemicals

Irritant Contact Dermatitis

Caused when skin is allergic to an ingredient or product
Sensitization – an allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or substance

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Avoid prolonged exposure.
Apply sunscreen liberally 30 minutes prior to exposure and after swimming.
Use full or broad-spectrum sunscreen.
Avoid exposing children under six months old.
Wear hat and protective clothing outdoors.

Sun Exposure Precautions

Sun exposure
Excessive alcohol and smoking
Illegal drugs
Cumulative stress
Poor nutrition
Exposure to pollution

Extrinsic Aging Factors

Changes in Skin Pigmentation (continued)

Albinism – absence of melanin pigment
Chloasma – increased pigment in spots
Lentigines – freckles
Leucoderma – light, abnormal patches

Pigment can be affected by internal factors such as heredity or hormonal fluctuations, or outside factors such as prolonged sun exposure.
Abnormal coloration (dyschromia) accompanies every skin disorder and many systemic disorders.

Pigment Disorders of the Skin

Conjunctivitis – pinkeye
Dermatitis – inflammatory skin condition
Eczema – acute, chronic lesions (dry or moist)

Skin Inflammations

Secondary Lesions (continued)

Keloid – thick scar
Scale – thin plate of epidermal flakes
Scar or cicatrix – light-colored, slightly raised mark on skin
Ulcer – open lesion with pus

Crust – dead cells formed over a wound or blemish
Excoriation – skin sore or abrasion
Fissure – crack in the skin

Secondary Lesions

Bulla – blister

Cyst – sac containing fluid pus
Macule – small, discolored spot or patch
Nodule – solid bump larger than .4 inches
Papule – pimple

Primary Lesions

A lesion is a mark on the skin or structural change in tissues caused by injury or disease.

Lesions of the Skin

Dermatologist – a physician who specializes in diseases and disorders of the skin
Inflamed skin disorders, whether infectious or not, should not be served in the salon.

Skin Disorders

Basal cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant melanoma

Skin Cancer

Skin tags

Keratoma – callus
Mole – small brownish spot or blemish
Skin tag – small brown or flesh-colored outgrowth of the skin
Verruca – wart

Hypertrophies of the Skin

Sebaceous Gland Disorders (continued)

Sebaceous cyst – large, protruding, pocketlike lesion filled with sebum
Seborrheic dermatitis – inflammation of the sebaceous glands
Rosacea – chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks and nose



Primary Lesions (continued)

Pustule – raised, inflamed pimple
Tubercle – abnormal rounded, solid lump
Tumor – abnormal cell mass
Vesicle – small blister with clear fluid
Wheal – itchy, swollen lesion (hives)

Port wine stain

Changes in Skin Pigmentation (continued)


Nevus – birthmark
Stains – abnormal brown skin patches
Tan – caused by exposure to UV rays
Vitiligo – hereditary, hypopigmented spots

Comedones – blackheads
Milia – benign, keratin-filled cysts
Acne – common pimples

Sebaceous Gland Disorders


Herpes Simplex

Skin Inflammations (continued)

Herpes simplex – fever blisters
Impetigo – weeping lesions
Psoriasis – common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease
Full transcript