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Transcript of Deaf Culture
Late 19th Century
School Options for the Deaf
American School for the Deaf
Image Courtesy of http://www.sorensonvrs.comaware2012_difference
Located in West Hartford, Connecticut
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc were the founders behind ASD.
Oldest permanent school for the Deaf
Gallaudet was principal until 1830, his son Edward Miner Gaulladet followed in his legacy and went on to build Gaullaudet University.
Formation of groups of reformers who sought to undo the growing D/deaf Community.
This was led by Alexander Graham Bell
Attempted to prohibit manualism, use of sign language, and replace it with oralism,using lip reading and spoken English, to teach the D/deaf community.
Image Courtesty of http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi587.htm
image courtesy of http://www.jtc.org/parents/ideas-advice-blog-comments/audiogram-of-familiar-sounds
diagrams illustrating hearing thresholds at given sound frequencies
-horizontal measures frequency in hertz
-vertical measures loudness in decibels (db)
measures the left ear
measures the right ear
Categorizes levels of Hearing Loss
[Lowest to Highest]
Speech Banana:range of frequencies where
speech sounds occur.
Americans and Disabilities Act (ADA)
passed on July 26, 1990 by George H. W. Bush
prohibits discrimination and guarantees that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else to participate in the mainstream of American life.
Modeled after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
image courtesy of http://www.ada.gov/ada_intro.htm
Andrew Foster-Father of Deaf Education in Africa
image courtesy of http://www.mapsofworld.com/africa/
retrieved from http://ecnv.wordpress.com/2011/05/11/one-of-many-famous-deaf-men-in-the-history/
first Black Deaf person to earn his bachelor’s degree from Gallaudet
went to Africa to in 1957 and told by missionaries that deaf children did not exist in Africa.
first taught in Ghana and then established 31 schools in other countries..
Also, Gallaudet University has the National Black Deaf Advocates (NBDA) Andrew Foster Endowment Fund that supports Andrew Foster scholarships for African American deaf students.
Disability Rights Movement
the movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for people with disabilities.
accessibility and safety in transportation, architecture, and the physical environment; equal opportunities in independent living, employment, education, and housing; and freedom from abuse, neglect, and violations of patients' rights.
image courtesy of http://www.ist.hawaii.edu/training/rights/02_dis_rights.php
Five Stages of Grief for Parents of Children with Disabilities
-worst stage, some parents never move on from this stage. (this can't be happening to me!)
- During this stage there are many stresses on the marriage and sometimes this anger will lead to divorce. (Why is this happening to me?)
- involves the hope that the parents can somehow cure their child. (I'll promise I'll be a better person if...)
- the parents start to blame themselves. (I don't care anymore.)
-parents do the hard work it takes to raise a special needs child.. ('m ready for whatever comes.)
A cochlear implant is an electronic hearing device which is surgically implanted.
-first part of the device is a microphone or transmitter, which is worn externally to pick up sounds in the environment.
-second part is the receiver and electrode system, which is implanted under the skin
(Simulation on Speech and Music)
Pros and Cons of Cochlear Implants
1. increased level of hearing
2. ability to function in mainstream schools
3.save on expenses for parents when it comes to other forms of assistive technology, tutoring, interpreters.
4.more job opportunities
1. costs are very high,can easily cost over $50,000.
2.may hear sounds differently than normal hearing
3.Less control over prosthetic device.
4. chance that damage to the auditory nerve or facial nerve could occur
Juan Pablo Bonet, writes the first well-known book of manual alphabetic signs for the deaf.
Electrical Hearing Aid Invented
Deaf President Now' Protest Held
Marli Matlin Wins Oscar
Teletypewriter (TTY) Invented
Total Communication leads to mainstreaming
Heather Whitestone First Deaf Miss America
image courtesy of http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/rare/collections/goldstein.htm
American Sign Language
What is it?
-a language that uses manual communication,body language and facial expressions.
(cannot be measured in percentages)
-Manualism a method of education of deaf students using sign language within the classroom
Used in classrooms..
- the carbon-based microphones, powered by large three-and six-volt batteries, give hearing-impaired people truly amplified sound for the first time.
CONS: 1. visible for those without much hair.
2. can be more inconvenient for physically active people.
image courtesy of http://hollywooddame.com/2010/10/28/time-traveler-caught-on-charlie-chaplin-film-%E2%80%93-video/
Robert Weitbrecht was the first to invent a device where D/deaf individuals are enabled to use phone lines to call each other and type out their conversations.
image courtesy of https://nfb.org/images/nfb/publications/bm/bm06/bm0609/bm060913.htm
image courtesty of http://tap.gallaudet.edu/presentations/KPStrauss-Doctor%20Lecture_files/textmostly/slide6.html
Life without a telephone substitute involved many miles of driving to deliver and relay messages.
TTY users could connect to any phone anywhere in the world
-a combination of manual and speech-based instruction for the Deaf is developed and promoted.
- new approach to deaf education within public school systems.
4 Types of Sentences in Total Communication
Mainstreaming means regular education classes are combined with special education classes.
Integrate deaf children in hearing environment.
Views on deafness as disability/hearing impaired.
Marlee Matlin was only 18 months old when an illness permanently destroyed all her hearing.
began signing at age 5
her parents learned some sign but they struggled *
worked several years as an actor at a Chicago Theater
*90- 95% of deaf kids are born to hearing parents and they rarely learn to sign for complex conversations.
got offered to play lead role
Children of a Lesser God
she refuses to lip-read or talk and only uses sign to communicate
won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1987.
Students and faculty at Gallaudet University protest the selection of another hearing president.
-Lasted eight days
- I. King Jordan is named the first deaf president of Gallaudet University.
image courtesy of http://justsinay.homestead.com/Webquest.html
I. King Jordan
image courtesy of http://www.casfaa.org/presenters
Lost most of her hearing at 18 months.
Orally educated Deaf women from Alabama.
participated in many pageants as a young girl which eventually led to the Miss America pageant.
-she had a hard time lip reading the host but she would ask the question back to him as a strategy.
when she was crowned Miss America, she began to showcase her S.T.A.R.S. program, which stands for "Success Through Action and Realization of your dreams", around the country.
Local Public School(Mainstream)
More in depth and challenging academics
Able to get involved in hearing activities such as student organizations,sports, clubs, etc.
Adopt hearing values and culture
Few ASL and deaf-related classes and departments
less incidental learning available to deaf students (depend on interpreters)
Teaching methods geared towards the deaf
Views deafness as cultural identity, Deaf Pride
ASL is used in classroom and outside of classroom
Classes may be less rigorous than a mainstream school
Possibly alienate from hearing family over communication differences.
likely to get oppressed by hearings over language barriers
-Divorce rate of married couples with children of disabilities is higher then the normal divorce rate.
-can be confusing and struggling to communicate in certain situations.
At the dinner table
-hearing family members may talk about their day while not including the deaf child in the conversation.
extended family parties
-hearing family members might not make an effort to communicate with the deaf individual due to the lack of common language skills.
image courtesy of http://bottom-of-the-glass.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.html
A History of Deaf Culture
centers on the use of ASL and identification and unity with other people who are Deaf. My presentation highlights some important people and inventions created for *D/deaf individuals and also presents the complications that they face with.
eaf- Culturally deaf
eaf- (clinically) trying to fix being deaf.
avoid the use of "hearing-impaired"
1. ASL-form of sign language developed in the U.S. for the use of people who are deaf, consisting of over 4,000 signs.
2.Contact "Pidgin" Sign-a sign language that has elements of both natural sign language and the surrounding [oral] language.
3.Cues- visual mode of communication in which mouth movements of speech combine with “cues” to make the sounds (phonemes) of traditional spoken languages.
4.Fingerspelling- representation of the alphabet and numerical systems using only the hands.
(Song using Contact Sign)
(Storytelling in ASL)
(Song using Cued Speech)
Christiansen, J. B., & Barnartt, S. N. (2003). Deaf President Now: The 1988 Revolution at Gallaudet University. Gallaudet University Press.
Dr. Andrew Foster . (2007). Retrieved from DeafIs: http://www.deafis.org/culture/ celebrities/foster.php
Hartford, C. T. (1830). American School for the Deaf.
Hunt, A. E. (2012, November 12). Heather Whitestone . Retrieved from StartAsl : http://www.start-american-sign-language.com/heather-whitestone.html
Kutner, A. (2013, February 27). Sign Language and Deaf Communication Methods and Information. Retrieved from Disabled World: http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/types/hearing/communication/
Padden, C., & Gunsauls, D. C. (2003). How the alphabet came to be used in a sign language. Sign Language Studies, 4(1), 10-33
Power, M. R., Power, D., & Horstmanshof, L. (2007). Deaf people communicating via SMS, TTY, relay service, fax, and computers in Australia. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(1), 80-92.
Safran, S. P. (1998). The First Century of Disability Portrayal in Film An Analysis of the Literature. The Journal of Special Education, 31(4), 467-479.
Severins, A. (2013, July 4). Deaf Schools Vs Mainstreamed. Retrieved from All Sign Language : http://allsignlanguage.blogspot.com/2013/07/deaf-schools-vs-mainstream.html