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APHG Models and Theories

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Natasha Crasta

on 14 May 2013

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Transcript of APHG Models and Theories

Central Place Theory Geographer: Walter Christaller Concentric Zone Model Native American Depopulation Geographer: William Denevan Latin American City Model Geographers: Larry Ford and Ernst Griffin Sector Model Geographer: Homer Hoyt AP Human Geography Models and Theories Malthusian Theory Geographer: Thomas Malthus Geographer: Ernest Burgess CBD
verticality of buildings
contains peak land value intersection (PLVI) which is the downtown intersection surrounded by the most expensive pieces of real estate
Transition Zone (Industrial Zone)
low-density commercial land containing space-dependent activities
era of deindustrialization: build festival landscapes (parks, etc)
Blue-collar Residential (Inner City Housing)
high-density housing
poor tenements to small apartments--> renovated through gentrification or left underdeveloped
Middle-income Residential (Suburb)
apartments, townhouses, detatched single-family houses (most popular)
Commuter Residential (Exurb)
wealthy area (work in city but live outside) Demographic Transition Model Bid-Rent Curve Developed to predict how/where central places in the urban hierarchy (hamlets, villages, towns and cities) would be functionally/spatially distributed
surface is flat (no physical barriers)
soil fertility is same everywhere
population and purchasing power are evenly distributed
region has uniform transportation network
from any given place, a good/service could be sold in all directions to a cerain distance
Central places are urban centers that provide services to their surrounding people
Hinterland=city's market area
Threshold=minimum number of people required to support a business
Range= maximum distance that people are willing to travel to gain access to a service Main idea: global population would one day expand to the point where it could not produce enough food to feed everyone Food grows in arithmetic manner, while population grows exponentially CBD=plaza (like European cities)= primary center for businesses
Spine=main boulevard leading from plaza to outskirts of city (area of wealth)
Elite Residential Sector=upper-class housing around Spine
Zone of Maturity= area of middle- to upper-class housing surrounding CBD
Zone of In Situ Accretion=area outside city limits/walls (colonial era)= areas of middle-class and working-class housing (today)
Zone of Peripheral Squatter Settlements= home of poor on urban periphery= colonias (Mexico), barriados (Peru), invasiones (Colombia and Ecuador)= common after WWII
Squatters=people who settle on land they don't own (on periphery)
Disamenity Sector=squatter communities closer to the city (unstable areas)=favelas
no access to transportation to get better jobs (poor stay poor) Wealthy live closer to CBD Periferico=commuter zone Central Business District (CBD)
Industrial Corridor
Rail Yards, RIverfronts, Harbor
Lower-Class Housing
Ethnic Neighborhoods
Middle-Class Housing
Suburbs, areas dominated by WASPs ( white Anglo-Saxon Protestants)
Upper-Class Housing
Elite Corridor or "The Boulevard" examples: Upper East Side in Manhattan, Chicago's North Shore, and Grosse Pointe in Detroit Predicts/explains North American urban growth patterns in 1930's, in which similar land uses/ socioeconomic groups clustered in linear sectors radiating outwards from a CBD usually along transportation corridors Shows the variations in rent that different people are willing to pay for land at different distances from CBD Cost function showing the exponential increase in land prices as one moves closer toward the peak land value intersection (PLVI) Multi Nuclei Model Geographers: Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman Theory of how population changes over time
shows history of population/ how it will change over time Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) =countries not as demographically/ economically advanced
ex: Brazil, Mexico, India 4 steps (less developed to developed):
Stage 1=low growth
Stage 2=high growth (early expanding)
Stage 3=moderate growth (late expanding)
Stage 4=low growth
Stage 5=zero/negative growth As food, etc. increases, population increases S-Curve of Population J-Curve Explains changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major focal nodes (more than one city center), many of which are located far away from CBD
suburban CBDs= as suburbs spread outward, service industries followed (occured post-World War II)
new areas of industrial development on urban periphery (had large areas of land for heavy industry) Gravity Model Rostow's Modernization Model Southeast Asian Model African Model Least Cost Theory Von Thunen Model Epidemiologic Transition Model Domino Theory Heartland Theory Rimland Theory Organic Theory Neocolonialism/ Dependancy Theory Sustainable Development World Systems Theory Rank Size Rule Environmental Determinism Possibilism Population Pyramids Locational Interdependence Model of Migration Transition Model of Urban Evolution Developed in 1950's and displays liberal development ideology
all countries develop in 5 stages (primary) (new leaders) (beginning of Industrial Revolution) (lots of steel mills) (car production) Geographer: Walt Rostow Rostow's Ladder of Development Geographer: H.J de Blij 3 CBDs:
Colonial CBD ("planned", made by Europeans)
traditional CBD based on growth Suq=marketplace=bazaar Geographer: Samuel Borchert studied US cities 1960s Stage 1: 1790-1830 (Sail Wagon)
mostly near ports/water ways
Stage 2: 1830-1870 (Iron Horse)
Stage 3: 1870-1920 (Steel Rail)
Industrial Revolution in US, Industrial cities boom especially in Great Lakes region
Stage 4: 1920-on
linked to car/air travel, spread of suburbs, growth of new cities in south Geographer: Alfred Weber Location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of 3 criticial expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
transportation = most important
site must entail the lowest possible cost of moving materials to the factory and finished products to the market
labor should be cheap (even if further from raw materials and market, as long as margin of profit made up for it)
agglomeration= when a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area, they can provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services, and facilites (opposite=deglomeration= when industries leave crowded urban centers and move to other locations) larger areas attract more migrants than smaller places
destinations further away have a weaker pull than destinations closer by Geographer: Johann Heinrich von Thunen perishable foods must be recieved by population quickly
area surrounding the city was the most valuable, so the crops there must match in value (perishable crops)
what farmers produce varies by distance from town, with livestock raising farthest from town
cost of transportation governs use of land
first effort to analyze spatial character of economic activity Geographer: T.G. McGee focal point= old colonial port zone with commercial district surrounding it
no CBD but elements of CBD found in separate clusters around old colonial port zone: government zone, Western commercial zone, alien commercial zone (mostly Chinese merchants), mixed land-use zone Geographer: Sir Halford Mackinder Geographer: Nicholas Spykman English School Era of sea power ending, control over land would be key to power "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland
Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia)
Who rules the World Island commands the world" Translation: control of Eastern Europe + Eurasia= control of World American School control of Rimland (outside of Heartland) would have global power
divided Rimland would lead to balance of power
used to justify US invlvement in Korea/Vietnam
influenced US containment Policy and Domino Theory Geographer: Friedrich Ratzel German School States are living organisms hungry for land; if they do not expand, they will not survive
Hitler's "lebensraum" or living space justified German aggression Communism spreads like dominos: one at a time, knocking down everything
if communism spreads and reaches India there will be major problems In a model urban hierarchy, the population of the city/town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy nth largest population= 1/n of largest city Geographer: Harold Hotelling An industry's locational choices are heavily influenced by the location of their main competitors/ related industries Geographer: Immanuel Wallerstein World economy has one market and global division of labor
Although the world has multibple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy
The world economy has a three-tier structure Core Semi-Periphery Periphery Procesesses that incorporate:
higher levels of education
higher salaries
more technology
generates more wealth in world economy DEVELOPED EX) USA, UK, France, Japan, Italy, Australia, Canada Places where core and periphery processes are both ocurring
These are places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery
Serve as a buffer between core and periphery DEVELOPING EX) India, Mexico, China Where most manufacturing takes place Processes that incorporate:
lower levels of education
lower salaries
less technology
generates less wealth in world economy DEVELOPING EX) Guatemala, all African countries except South Africa supplies raw materials and cheap labor does the "thinking" does the "work" natural environment merely limits people to certain lives
affects decision-making, especially food production more favored by 1950s Human behavior controlled by physical environment
Tropical peoples were more timid and could be taken over without much fight
Middle latitude, temperate zones were the dominant species
belief originates in Ancient Greece and is popular until mid-1900s Europe uses it as a reason to expand/ take over other lands The political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control and limit the economic development possibilites of poorer areas economic structures make poorer countries dependent on wealthier countries
little hope for economic prosperity in poorer countries Early Stages: plague/ pestilence spread as a result of poor medical innovations
Industrialization=greater spread (people in close proximity and bad living conditions)
Later Stages: diseases once believed to be irradicated reappear as more-developed countries come into easier contact with less-developed countries (small pox/ bubonic plague) pre-Colombian population of North and South America was around 54 million people (1492)
population declined around 5 million by 1635
cause: European diseases (influenza, measles, and cholera) The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development Geographer: Wilbur Zelinsky Two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing the number of females in a particular population in five-year age groups
importance: you can tell from the age distribution important characterestics of a country, whether high guest worker population, if they just had war/ deadly disease, etc.
Shape determined by Crude Birth Rate Triangular
Ex) Laos, Mozambique, Sub Saharan Africa Extended Triangle
Moderate Growth
Ex) Mexico, Brazil Column
Slow Growth
Ex) USA, Uruguay Reduced Pentagon
Ex) Germany, Hungary U Migration trends follow demographic transition; people become increasingly mobile as industrialization develops. Phase 1 (Premodern Traditional Society): very little migration
Phase 2 (Early Transitional Society): rapid movement from countryside to city
Phase 3 (Late Transitional Society): migration from city to city
Phase 4 (Advanced Society): Type of migration that occurs within a country depends on how developed it is or what type of society it is. Urban Realms Model Geographer: James Vance Each realm is a separate economic, social, and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metropolitan framework cities are interdependent
outer cities are not satellites of the central city, they shape the metropolis has middle-income housing intensive farming extensive farming every migration flow generates a return countermigration
the majority of migrations move a short distance
migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations
urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
families are less likely to make international moves than young adults core countries= diseases usually chronic/genetic
non-core countries= diseases usually infectious Geographer: Carl Sauer Geographer: Friedrich Ratzel
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