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Immune & Autoimmune Disorders
Transcript of Immune & Autoimmune Disorders
NRS 233: Pathophysiology II
Type 1 Hypersensitivity
Suppressed Immune System
Excessive or Inappropriate
Giddens, J. (2017).
Concepts for nursing practice
(2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Copstead, L. & Banasik, J. (2014).
(5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
T-helper cells (CD4) = 75% of all T lymphocytes
Lymph System Organs
All cells that have a nucleus
From antigen-presenting cells - dendrites, macrophages, B-lymphocytes
Felver, L. (2013). Online Materials:
PROP- Pathophysiology online.
Retrieved from https://evolve.elsevier.com/
YouTube videos embedded on some slides.
B Cells, CD4+...
Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/immunology/v/review-of-b-cells-cd4-t-cells-and-cd8-t-cells
Sequence & Treatment
bind to various joint antigens, forming
in the joint.
Forms a mass of tissue known as
that covers the articular cartilage
Cells of the pannus secrete many
and destructive enzymes that degrade cartilage and activate osteoclasts to degrade bone
Joint deformities occur from destruction of cartilage and bone, fibrosis, and damage to ligaments and tendons that causes
develop against many different
(kidneys, arteries, joints, & skin)
activation that triggers inflammation
ANA = antinuclear antibodies
(antibodies against normal nuclear antigens)
- APCs process & present antigen to naive B-lymphocytes
IgE antibodies attach to
binds to antibodies on mast cell
Mast cells degranulate
& release/secrete histamine, enzymes, chemotactic agents, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, & cytokines
Monitoring HIV Status
A positive ELISA test needs confirmation with a Western Blot
Conversion occurs 3 weeks - 3 months after infection
Home test kits are recommended for use 3 months after exposure - Positive tests need follow-up
testing to determine viral burden
Useful to determine disease progression and/or treatment success
CD4+ T-cell count
to determine impact upon immune system
- Primary immunoglobulin in the blood -
80% to 85% of circulating immunoglobulins
May enter tissue spaces
Selectively crosses the placenta
Coats antigen for more effective and efficient presentation for an immune response
Binds to macrophages and neutrophils for increased phagocytosis
- Found within the cell membrane of B lymphocytes
- Responsible for allergy symptoms and increases in the presence of parasitic worms
Normally found in trace amounts
- Protects entrances to the body
Found in high concentrations in body fluids (tears, saliva, secretions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal [GI] tracts)
- Remains in the blood and efficiently kills bacteria
Largest of the immunoglobulins
First antibody produced with an initial (primary) immune response
Works to enhance the immune response
Helps rid the body of antibody-antigen complexes
25 major proteins
Circulate in an inactive form in the blood
Engage in a cascade of interactions when the first protein molecule (C1) encounters an antigen-antibody complex
Also responsible for
dilation & leaking of fluid
from the vascular system
Leads to redness & swelling during the inflammatory process