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Sleep & Dreams

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Christina Truelove

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of Sleep & Dreams

Sleep & Dreams
Chapter 7

Sleep Disorders
Sleep Apnea
Nightmares & Night Terrors
Sleep talking
Happen in REM sleep
Dreams later on in the sleep are longer and more vivid.
People rarely remember more than the last 15 minutes of a dream
Some Suggestions
Keep a dream journal by your bed. Write in it when you first wake up
Record what you dream, how long you slept, and how you feel.
The food/drink you had the night before could have something to do with your sleep & dreams
So could stress, anxiety, depression & other life events
Sleep is vital to your physical and psychological health.
If you do not sleep, you will have psychological symptoms
Consciousness is a state of awareness; includes a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas & perceptions.
EEG helped scientists study sleep

Stages of Sleep
Stage 1 – “Just Drifting”. This lasts for up to 10 minutes. There is a presence of theta waves.
Stage 2 – Your eyes roll from side to side slowly. Lasts for approximately 30 minutes.
Stage 3 – Delta waves sweep your brain every second or so

Stages of Sleep
Stage 4 – Deepest sleep; difficult to wake someone in stage 4. If they are awakened, they are very disoriented. Sleep walking/talking & bed wetting happen in this stage. It is a very important stage for physical and psychological well being

Stages of Sleep
REM – Rapid eye movement. About 25% of sleep time is spent in REM. Stages I-IV are called NREM (non-REM).
Pulse and breathing are irregular, adrenal and sexual hormone levels increase, face or fingers may twitch, large muscles in arms and legs may be paralyzed
Brainwaves look like those of someone fully awake.

Stages of Sleep
REM – This is where dreams take place.
After REM, your body will cycle back through each stage. Each time, the duration of Stage 4 is less and REM lasts longer.
REM sleep will last about 15-45 min.
You complete this cycle every 90 minutes or so.
Purpose of REM is to build efficient learning and memory processes

How much sleep do we need?
About 1/3 of our life is spent in sleep.
Needed sleep changes from person to person and the time of life. Babies sleep about 16 hrs. Adolescents need 10-12 hours. Average adult gets about 8 hours. Elderly only need 5-6 hours.
Circadian Rhythm
This is the biological clock that regulates activity and inactivity in a 24-hour period.
Responsible for you feeling tired at the same time everyday.
Operates even when day/night clues are removed.
Does NOT control sleep cycles. The environment and 24 hour day does that.

Chronic failure to get enough sleep at night.
May be caused by anxiety & depression, and/or the overuse of alcohol or drugs

Sleep Apnea
Frequent interruptions of breathing during sleep
Symptoms are a specific kind of snoring with episodes that last 10-15 seconds and end suddenly.
Blockage of breathing passages are actually causing the person to choke.

Permanent and overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and fatigue
Could have dreamlike hallucinations, feelings of temporary paralysis, and sleep attacks.
Nightmares & Night Terrors
Nightmare – unpleasant movie-like dream
Occur in REM sleep
Night Terrors – sleep disruptions in Stage 4 sleep. Involves screaming, sweating, confusion, and rapid heart rate. Subjects usually have no memory of it.
Person is partially awake but will have no memory of sleepwalking
Mostly children and will outgrow it
Most do not have emotional problems
May be inherited or linked to stress, fatigue, or use of sedatives
Sleep talking
Very common
can occur in REM or NREM
The subject will not remember it
It can be a single word or a whole conversation with gaps between speaking.
Someone awake can even engage the person in a conversation
Content of Dreams
Often we incorporate our everyday activities in our dreams.
Usually occur in common places like cars, houses, streets
Usually doing strenuous or passive activities
Large percentage of dreams are negative or unpleasant
Dream Interpretation
Inuit People thought that dreams were where people entered the spiritual world and spoke with those who passed away
Sigmund Freud believed that dreams are a result of strong fears and desires.

Dream Interpretation
Nathaniel Kleitman believed that dreams mean nothing and that it is just a result of stimulated brain cells throwing random information
Dream Interpretation
Some think that dreams allow people to review and address problems throughout the day
Francis Crick thinks dreaming is the brain’s way of removing unneeded memories or information

Part of this video is a bit disturbing...
Full transcript