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Ancient Rome

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by

Eileen Brown

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Rome

Trouble in the Republic
Gap b/t the rich and the poor
Most small farmers are in debt
Lose or sell their land
Wealthy land owners bought up the farms
Many rich landowners were in the Senate
Nothing to protect the small farmers
The Gracchus brothers wanted to reform Rome
They asked the Senate to divide the public land among the poor
Not a popular idea and both brothers are murdered Ancient Rome
Part 1 Italy is a peninsula; the Alps separates Italy from the rest of Europe
The communities were not split up like the Greeks
The first people were from north of the Alps Rome
Latin-speaking people built Rome
Located 15 miles up the Tiber River
The Tiber flows out to the Mediterranean Sea
Good stopping point for travelers and merchants
Built on 7 hills
Good defense from enemies The Romans were influenced by the Greeks and Etruscans
The Greeks formed colonies in southern Italy and on the island of Sicily
Crops, alphabet, architecture, sculpture, literature
The Etruscan were from Eturia (north of Rome)
Building, town planning, clothing, military
Geography Skills, page 263 The Etruscans became wealthy and powerful
Ruled Rome
Cruel rulers
The Romans rebelled and set up a republic
A form of government where
the leader is put in office by
citizens who have the right
to vote The Romans conquered most of the people around them as well as the Greek colonies
When the Romans conquered an area they built a military settlement
The conquered people could be Roman citizens
They built roads between towns – the troops could get places faster Rome was divided into 2 social classes
Patricians – the ruling class, wealthy land owners
Plebeians – artisans, shopkeepers, small farmers
Men from both groups were citizens
Had to pay taxes and serve in the army
Plebeians could not hold public office Roman republic had a three part government:
Consuls -the top officials who headed the army and ran the gov’t
The Senate – 300 patrician men who propose laws and gave advice to the consuls
Praetors - A group that acted as judges and interpreted the law Plebeians did not like being powerless
They go on strike & refuse to serve in the army
The patricians agree to share power
The Council of Plebs was created to bring plebeian concerns to the government
Plebeians gradually gained more political power Plebeians demanded that the laws be written down so the patricians wouldn’t get favored
Rome’s first code of law was the Twelve Tables
First set of rules for Rome
Described the rights of a citizen and were put up in the marketplace
Every one knew the laws and that made it so the judges could not treat people differently because of their class The Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Carthaginian Empire and the Romans
264 - 146 BC
Carthage
Coast of North Africa
Settled by the Phoenicians
Wealthy trade city
Rome had taken over most of Italy
Wanted the island of Sicily
Partly owned by Carthage Carthaginians empire expanded and claims land in southern Spain
Rome doesn’t like that they are now on the European continent
Rome helps the people in Spain
Two more wars follow and Rome crushes Carthage and continues to expand The poor can't find work
Slaves do most of the jobs
Roman politicians didn't want the
poor to riot
Give cheap food and free shows
"Bread and circuses"
Makes the politicians popular with the poor
The army now pays wages and promises land
Many poor sign up Mid-50s BC Pompey is consul
Julius Caesar is a very popular and wealthy military leader
The Senate does not like that Caesar is popular with the people
After conquering most of Gaul Caesar is ordered back to Rome and give up command Caesar has loyal soldiers and they agree to fight for him
They march to Rome
Defeats his enemies
44 BC Caesar declares himself dictator of Rome for life
A strict leader with complete control over the government and country
He fills the Senate with men who would support him Caesar makes many reforms
Creates new colonies
Has large landowners employ free men instead of using slaves The Senate worries he will make himself king
They plot to murder Caesar
He is stabbed to death in the Senate House
The death of Caesar leads to another civil war
B/t those who support the murderers and those who supported Caesar
Those who supported Caesar won 27 B.C. Octavian (the nephew of Julius Caesar) becomes the next ruler
Knew that a republic was not the best government for Rome
Gave some power to the Senate but he was really in charge
Took the title “imperator” Latin for commander in chief (emperor)
Changed his name to Augustus which means “the revered or majestic one”
Augustus's rule started the Pax Romana – a 200 years of peace and safety (Roman Peace) Wanted to make the empire safe and strong
Created a professional army
Appointed governor to each of Rome’s provinces (political district)
Conquered large amounts of territory
Imported grain to feed the poor
Reformed the tax system and the legal system
Augustus died after 40 years of ruling The Good Emperors
Five emperors from 96 A.D. to 180 A.D.
Hard working and smart rulers
Worked to make life for the citizens of the Roman empire better The empire continued to grow and was at its largest when the Emperor Trajan ruled
North into Britain and east in to Mesopotamia
The Emperor Hadrian realizes that the empire is becoming too big to rule
Sets boundaries
Removes troops from Mesopotamia
Builds a wall in Britain to keep out the tribes to the north
Full transcript