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Body Modifications, Tattoos, Piercings, & Jewelry
Nonverbal Common 28 February 2013
Transcript of Body Modifications, Tattoos, Piercings, & Jewelry
Body Modifications, Tattoos,
Piercings, & Jewelry Body Modification in Asia Body Modification in Asia What will we be covering? Body Modification in Asia • Foot binding of 10th century to the early 20th century
- Seen as beautiful and would attract powerful men
- Desired length of "lotus" foot was a little over 3" • Skin Bleaching
- Old Japanese proverb "iro no shiroi wa shichinan kakusu or "white skin covers the seven flaws" • History, purposes, and different types
• Tattoos in popular culture
• Purposes of and different types of piercings
• Purposes of and different types of jewelry
• Different types of body modifications and
their significance Body Modification in Tribal Africa Body Modification in Tribal Africa Stephanie Agudelo
Lauren Roberts What cultures will we be covering? • North America
• Tribal Africa
• India & Polynesia
• Middle East
• South & East Asia Source: Brass Shackles. (2008). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BL8ARB5FmsA.
Tantisunthorn, R. (2007). Mu Hine with Brass Rings. Explorations, 7 (1), 49-53 Thailand China •Asian blepharoplasty
- Creating a double eyelid or increased crease
- Asians want to look like other Asians, 50%
have some sort of eyelid crease Source: Mao, J. (2008). Foot Binding: Beauty and Torture. Journal of Biological Anthropology, 1 (2).
Chen, S. (2003). Asian blepharoplasty. Complications in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery. • Three tribes left known to perform practice, Karenni,
Kayan, and the Padang.
• Originally done for beauty, now performed to show
identification to tribe. Japan •Bagelheads
-Injection of saline solution into
-"We all enjoy being freaks
for one night." Source: Mire, A. (2001). Skin-bleaching: Poison, beauty, power and the politics of the colour line.
Resources for Feminist Research, 28 (3), 13-38.
Misener, Jessica. (2012). 'Bagel head' saline forehead injections: Japan's hot new beauty trend? The Huffington Post. Mursi Tribe of Ethiopia •Lip Plates
-Young women have lips cut at age 15 or 16.
- Originally performed to discourage slave raiders •Body Painting
-Shows strength and leadership.
-Not just for special
ceremonies Source: Turton, D. (2004). Lipplates and ‘the people who take photographs’: Uneasy encounters between Mursi and tourists in southern Ethiopia. Anthropology today, 20 (3), 3-8. Karo Tribe of the Omo Valley •Scarification
-Women scar torso to appear attractive
-Men scar chests to show kills •Scarification
-Rite of passage; show
strength and discipline.
-Chest, back, and buttocks
sliced with a bamboo sliver
-Represent "crocodile teeth" Source: Hemingston, Vince. (2010). Scarification: Ancient Body Art Leaving New Marks. National Geographic News. Papua New Guinea Body Modification in Asia Indonesia Source: Demello, M. (2012). Faces Around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. New York: ABC-CLIO. •Teeth Filing
- Canine teeth symbolize negative emotions like anger and greed, which can be controlled through filing the teeth Vietnam •Blackening teeth
-Blacken with wax-like substance and file
them for decorative purposes
-Performed at puberty to begin attracting offspring to opposite sex Body Modification in Tribal Africa Arbore Tribe of the Omo Valley •Shave heads
-Indicate woman's virginity
- show purity & innocence • Paint Faces
-Resemble animals, such as guinea fowl
admiration for the animal Source: Smith, A. D. (1896). Expedition through Somaliland to Lake Rudolf (Conclusion). The Geographical Journal, 8 (3). Body Modification in North America Source: Benedict, R. F. (1922). The vision in Plains culture. American Anthropologist, 24(1), 1-23. Body Modification in Tribal Africa Zulu Tribe of South Africa Source: Demello, M. (2012). Faces Around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. New York: ABC-CLIO. •Earlobe Stretching
-Coming of age
knowledge Body Modification in Tribal Africa Cameroon of West Central Africa Source: Taboo : Body Modification. (2011). National Geographic. •Breast Ironing
-Desire to flatten breasts to prevent girls
from going after after men too early
-Use hot stick or ladle and press against
breasts for upwards of one hour Native American Plains Tribes •Hand mutilation
-Cut off fingers at the joints to communicate mourning or loss of tribesman
-Practiced by Dakota, Cheynne, Arapaho tribes •Feathers
-Adhere feathers to hair to
communicate brave deed •Face & Body Paint
-Patterns would provide protection, colors made chiefs
look more ferocious hand-to-hand
combat lightning bolt for
speed Body Modification in the Middle East Source: Robinson, C. (2012). City of Spectacle: Ideal Forms of Beauty and Body Modification in Beirut.
Tait, Robert. (2005). Vanity and boredom fuel Iran’s nose job boom. The Guardian. Iran •Plastic Surgery
-Nose job capital of
-Desire to perfect face
-Often seen as status
symbol Beirut •Facial Enhancements
-Rooted in religious standards for hygiene
-Common procedures: Botox, laser hair removal,
teeth whitening, brow lifts, lip contouring Body Modification in North America United States •Cosmetic Surgery
-According to International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons February 2013 study, U.S. accounts for 21% of overall number of procedures, remaining leading country in the world
-Performed to communicate
a confident self and "represent one's self accurately to others" Source:Russell, Grace. (2013). Top countries for Cosmetic Surgery? U.S.A. no. 1. PRWeb.
Gagné, P., & McGaughey, D. (2002). Designing Women Cultural Hegemony and the Exercise of Power among Women Who Have Undergone Elective Mammoplasty. Gender & Society, 16(6), 814-838. Tattoos in Asia Japan Source: Full Body Tattoos. (2008). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DCsBLg0V8E. •In 17th century Japan, tattoos were originally given to criminals as punishment and to warn others
•Outlaws would often cover the tattoo with a more colorful and
decorative one, inspiring Japanese gangsters of the present day History of Tattoos Tattoos existed long before the birth of Jesus Christ
The earliest evidence of tattoos was found on an Iceman in 1991 between the Austrian & Italian Alps
He had 58 tattoos & an earring Meanings of Tattoos In Ancient Societies To connect with the Divine
To show belonging to a group or tribe
As a Talisman or permanent amulet
To provide medical or magical protection
As a "passport" to the afterlife Lloyd, J. D. (2003). Body piercing and tattoos: Examining pop culture. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Press. Tattoos in Africa Amunet Priestess of Hathor mummy had tattoos
Tattoos at this time in the Middle Kingdom were strictly for women
Tattoos were dashes, lines, dots, and various geometrical shapes
Signified protection & fertility
"Brides of the Dead" statuettes all displayed the same tattoo markings and were buried with male mummies to incite their sexual instincts & ensure resurrection Source: Lloyd, J. D. (2003). Body piercing and tattoos: Examining pop culture. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Press.
Rubin , A. (1988). Marks of civilization. Los Angeles, California: Museum of Cultural History. Tattoos in Polynesia The Lapita people (ancestor of Polynesian cultures) used elaborate geometrical designs
They used flat chisel-shaped bones 4 to 5 centimeters long and used a smaller mallet to hit the top of the chisel & puncture skin
The color was a mixture of water and soot
The Lapita people took tattoos seriously and usually tattooed their entire bodies
European explorers came in contact with the Lapita people and brought tattoos back with them to Europe
Although the European explorers took tattoo knowledge back to Europe they also destroyed the Polynesian culture by deeming them "uncivilized." Lloyd, J. D. (2003). Body piercing and tattoos: Examining pop culture. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Press.
Demello, M. (2012). Faces Around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. New York: ABC-CLIO. Tattoos in North America "AMERICA HAS BECOME A TATTOOED NATION. IF YOU TURN ON YOUR television, open a magazine, or go see a movie, you will likely encounter a tattooed body. Actors, models, musicians, and idolized athletes proudly herald the mainstreaming of a previously marginalized and historically underground practice." Mediated Pop Culture (TV, musicians, celebrities, professional athletes, Hollywood films etc.)
More than just a fad (more personal)
Youth culture idolizes and follows the path of their role models
Tattoos are being declared print works of art Source: Kosut, M. (2006). An Ironic Fad: The Commodification and Consumption of Tattoos. Journal Of Popular Culture, 39(6). Body Modification Studies Source: Body piercing and tattoos: a survey on young adults' knowledge of the risks and practices in body art. (2011). BMC Public Health, 11(1), 774-781. A study conducted at the University of Bari in Italy surveyed 1,598 freshman college students about the risk knowledge and attitudes they had towards piercings and tattoos. The study proved that the practice of body art is spreading and although many students were aware of the risks, many still considered getting a tattoo or piercing in the future. *Those who did have body art were unable to explain why they were motivated to do so. Body Modification Studies cont'd... What Are They Nonverbally Communicating? Tattoos in North America Tattoos in India Tanning "Purpose: Explore psychosocial background information for body modification practices based on a sufficiently large sample. A core group of 432 subjects with body piercings and/or tattoos (readers of a specialized magazine on body modification; mean age: 28 years) was investigated in this study using a 55-item questionnaire. " The study found that main motivations for body modifiers were due to:
Need for autonomy
To recall a certain part of their life
To cope with traumatic experience (sexual abuse)
Issues with addiction (similar to or coinciding with drug addiction)
Need to belong Stirn, A., Oddo, S., Peregrinova, L., Philipp, S., & Hinz, A. (2011). Motivations for body piercings and tattoos — The role of sexual abuse and the frequency of body modifications. Psychiatry Research,190(2/3), 359-363. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.06.001 Tattoos in Europe When European sailors first encountered tattoos with the Polynesians they brought some of the indigenous people with them to Europe to display them as exotic savages However,
Tattoos became popular with European aristocracy because they were administered by hand which meant only people who could afford them were able to get them This was popular until 1891 when Samuel O'Reilly patented the first electric tattoo machine in New York Body Modification in Europe •World's Strongest Man -Zydrūnas Savickas of Lithuania was deemed the world's strongest man in 2012.
-Communicates the people of Europe have "good genes."
-Being physically strong also communicates to being important and powerful. Source: Bliss, Dominic. (2010). World’s strongest man. Men’s Fitness. Ancient Egypt Henna The United States Source: Demello, M. (1993). The convict body. Anthropology Today, 9 (6). Prison tattoos
-Many convicts and criminals tattoo gang affiliated signs and symbols on their bodies and faces.
-Communicates belonging to particular gang whilst on the street or in jail
-Communicates dedication to gang and warns others of membership The United States Source: Reed, C. E. (2000). Tattoo in early China. Journal Of The American Oriental Society, 120 (3). China Tattoos in Asia History of Jewelry Began in the Hellenistic Period Greek, Roman, and Etruscan No diamonds or rubies; emeralds and sapphires were rare Gold was valued over silver Greek History of Jewelry Jewelry adorned with animals - Wanted to adorn themselves with what they felt was the
representation of strength and nobility in their culture. Jewelry symbolic of their gods - Incorporated symbolic meaning into jewelry in order to pay respect to their gods. Example: Dolphins on a piece of jewelry was symbolic of Aphrodite. Gold Spiral Armbands - Worn on the upper-arm to serve as a fashion statement. History of Jewelry Etruscan and Roman Etruscan - Earrings were engraved with different patterns and waves. No two designs were exactly the same. This represented their desire to communicate uniqueness. Roman - Roman Republic frowned upon lavish jewelry. - Their jewelry was originally seen as "barbaric"; however, they became influenced by Greek motifs. - In order to be perceived in a way that is not over the top,
their jewelry was simplistic. They used gold cut outs and
coins. Source: Andrewoliver, J. (1966). Greek, Roman, and Etruscan Jewelry. Source: Andrewoliver, J. (1966). Greek, Roman, and Etruscan Jewelry. Source: Andrewoliver, J. (1966). Greek, Roman, and Etruscan Jewelry. Jewelry in Buddhist Religion Adorned with animals - Served as a representation of the Buddha. Lion - Buddha appears as lion/lioness. Lioness serves
as a symbol for health, maternity, and magic. Frog - Buddha appears as frog. Frogs are symbols
of longevity. Monkey - Buddha appears as Monkey. A monkey was a
symbol of the Blessed Hanuman (son of wind God.) Brooches symbolize the sun. - "Whoever wears it, lives in constant happiness." Tajik jewelry Source: Neva, E. (2006). Buddhist tradition in Tajik jewelry. Transoxiana. of the Merovingian Period Not your typical jewelry. Barbarian Jewelry Served as a source of protection in battle. This culture buried their dead with this jewelry. Keywords: Pride, Warrior, Possession, Skilled Celts. Source: Ricketson, E. B. (1947). Barbarian jewelry of the Merovingian period. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 5 (136). Jewelry has been prominent in this culture for almost 5,000 years! Kings wore excessive amounts of jewelry to be look at as gods. Jewelry in India Bridal jewelry is the most crucial part of a woman's wedding. Not wearing any is considered sacrilege. In wearing bridal jewelry, a woman is communicating her decision to strengthen and signify the sanctity of the bond. Nose rings, or naths, symbolize marriage. Bangles, worn in gold, symbolize marriage, as well as Indian culture. Toe rings are worn only by married women. Source: Shah, E. (2011). History of Indian Jewelry. Indian Tribune, 34. Global Significance Piercings Oral Piercings - Mayans: tongue piercings symbolized virility and courage. - Eskimos and Aleuts: lip piercing on a female infant
symbolizes purification. For boys, it symbolizes a passage
into puberty. - Brazil: wooden disks are worn in the Suya tribe if you are a man or a widower. - South India: some people of this culture pierce their tongue with a skewer as a symbol for silence. Tongue Piercing in Nepal Piercing used as a religious form of communication - Man stands before the gods and gets his tongue pierced in order to determine whether or not his village will be given prosperity in the New Year. Source: Troye Peticols, R. D. H., Tilliss, T. S., & Cross-Poline, G. N. (2000). Oral and Perioral Piercing: A Unique Form of Self-Expression. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 1 (3), 1-10. Source: Tongue Piercing. (2007). National Geographic. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dff1AFIm9QY. Tattoos Reach America Martin Hildebrandt opened the first tattoo shop in NY in 1846
The invention of the electric tattoo machine in 1891 made tattooing
less painful, cheap, easier and more popular in America.
Tattoo shops were located at ports & docks because they became popular with sailors
Thus was born American tattooing which consisted of patriotic art, thick black lines, heavy shading, and colors like black, red, and later green & blue. Source: DeMello, M. (2000). Bodies of inscription, a cultural history of the modern tattoo community. (1st ed.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books.
Kirby, D. (2006). Inked Well. American Interest, 2 (2), 50-57. Henna is a plant based compound that is dried out and crushed to make the paste used to create design
Mendhi is the Hindu word for the art of Henna
Henna was brought to India by Arabic Muslims
Henna has been used in India since the 12th century. Tattoos in India Henna cont'd Traditionally applied to the hands & feet of the wearer
Usually for wedding ceremonies or other special occasions
Mehndi designs are considered good luck in India, the Middle East and North Africa. Belonging
All part of nonverbal self expression Source: DeMello, M. (2000). Bodies of inscription, a cultural history of the modern tattoo community. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books.
Kirby, D. (2006). Inked Well. American Interest, 2 (2), 50-57. Early Chinese tattoos served different purposes
Some were given as punishment
Some were given to concubines & slaves (facial brands)
Some were given to warriors
Others were for cosmetic purposes and voluntary Sun tanning is reflective of our values as a society. Reasons for tanning include:
Considered "Safe Tan"
Supposed health benefits (psoriasis/ weight loss) The United States Source: Brown, B. (1996). Color me brown: Tanning salons are finding people want the color of the sun without the risks -- and they can provide it. Cape Coral Breeze. Piercings Global Significance Ear piercings - In Borneo, parents pierce a child’s ears to represent the child’s dependence. - Earrings serve as a way to repel spirits. - Some people of the Indian culture pierce their ears to show their wealth. - Hebrews wore earrings as a form of adornment; gold earrings represented wealth. Slaves’ ears were pierced as a mark of servitude. - Exodus 21:5-6: Free slaves who want to continue to serve their master could have their ears pierced in court as a sign of permanent service. Source: Demello, M. (2012). Faces Around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. New York: ABC-CLIO. Global Significance - In Egypt, a naval piercing was viewed as a sign of royalty and virility. Piercings Body piercings - Ancient Mayans pierced their bodies for beautification purposes. - Roman military officers pierced their chest area as a sign of military rank and courage. - African tribes pierced many body parts for spiritual/ceremonial reasons. Tanning In The United States A study conducted to see how college students' attitudes on tanning have changed from 1995 to 2005 showed that even though as a society we are now more aware of the dangers of tanning, our perspective still remains: TAN = BETTER Source: Pettijohn II, T. F., Pettijohn, T. F., & Geschke, K. S. (2009). CHANGES IN SUN TANNING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS OF U.S. COLLEGE STUDENTS FROM 1995 TO 2005. College Student Journal, 43(1), 161-165. Tattoos Tattoos started with colonialism, discovery and exploration. European explorer Captain James Cook was the first westerner to use the term "tatau" when he encountered tattoos in Tahiti. In Tahitian "tatau" means to mark Source:DeMello, M. (2000). Bodies of inscription, a cultural history of the modern tattoo community. (1st ed.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books. Source: Webinars, A. D. V. A. N. C. E., Center, N. R., Center, P. R., & Promotions, C. Piercing: 3,400 Years Old. They are used to ward off evil spirits.
According to tradition, the longer the color lasts, the longer the love and luck holds out.
In Moroccan lore the designs promote fertility and healthy children.
In East Africa, Masai warriors mark their status within the tribe with henna designs. Body Modification in Europe Ancient Greece Source: Forgen, T. (2009). Bodies and Boundaries in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. New York: De Gruyter. Ideal male body was lean and muscular, which was achieved through means of body modification called diaita.
Communicated that these men were strong, powerful, and almost divine.
Desire to attract women Body Modification in Europe Ancient Rome Source: Forgen, T. (2009). Bodies and Boundaries in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. New York: De Gruyter. Men of Rome also followed a strict "warrior diet" and exercise regime to convey power and divinity
Also applied large amounts of perfume to communicate high status in society and wealth Body Modification in the Middle East Israel Source: Doyle, D. (2005). Ritual male circumcision: a brief history. JOURNAL-ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF EDINBURGH, 35(3), 279. Abraham, the founding father of the Israelites, was first to undergo circumcision procedure around 1800 BCE
Mark of the covenant between God and his children
Rite of passage into adulthood with all its responsibilities Body Modification in North America United States Source: Meyerowitz, J. (1998). Sex change and the popular press: Historical notes on transsexuality in the United States, 1930–1955. GLQ :A Journal Of Lesbian And Gay Studies, 4 (2). Christine Jorgensen of New York City first to undergo procedure in 1952. Desire to communicate identification as a female
Achieved through means of hormone replacement therapy and multiple surgeries Source: Petkewich, R. (2006). What's that stuff?. Chemical & Engineering News, 84 (6). Source: Petkewich, R. (2006). What's that stuff?. Chemical & Engineering News, 84 (6). Thank You We hope you learned something about what people are trying to NONVERBALLY communicate with Body Modifications! Any Questions?