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Face-Negotiation Theory -- Stella Ting-Toomey

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Julia Hunt

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Face-Negotiation Theory -- Stella Ting-Toomey

Face-Negotiation Theory -- Stella Ting-Toomey
Three Important Distinctions
Different ways members of a culture perceive

Individualism vs. Collectivism
Self Construal
people within a culture differ on the relative emphasis they place on individual self-sufficiency or group solidarity
a universal concern

it is an extension of self concept

a vulnerable, identity-based resource

the public self-image that every member of society wants to claim for himself/herself

the projected image of one's self in a relational situation
Five Styles of Conflict Management
avoiding (withdrawing)
obliging (giving in)
compromising (negotiating)
dominating (competing)
integrating (problem-solving)
Face-Negotiation Theory
helps explain cultural differences in responses to conflict

Everyone is negotiating

Face is a metaphor for our public image, the way we want others to view us and treat us
refers to "specific verbal and non-verbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss, and to uphold and honor face gain
Different Kinds of Culture
Individualistic -- US, UK, Australia

Collectivistic -- China, Japan, Korea, many Asian cultures
About one third of the world's population

North America, Australia, Germany, and Scandinavia

Values individualistic needs and goals

governed by the personal rules of freewheelilng self that is concerned with individual rights
More than two thirds of world

most countries in Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Latin America

Value collective needs and goals

a person's behavior is controlled by the norms of the group
Independent Self
values self as prevalent

values self-identity

more self-faced oriented
Interdependent Self
values we-identity

emphasize relational connectedness
third orientation

there's equal concern for both partie's image, as well as the public image of their relationship
facework strategy used to stake out a unique place in life, preserve autonomy, and defend against loss of personal freedom

Individualistic Cultures
facework strategy used to defend and support another person's need for inclusion. It means taking care not to embarrass or humiliate the other in public

Collectivistic Cultures
Three additional styles in collectivistic cultures
emotional expression
passive aggressive
third party help
Power Distance
the way a culture deals with status differences and social hierarchies
Competent Intercultural Facework
Cultural Knowledge -- most important

Mindfulness -- shows a recognition that things are not as they seem

Facework Interaction Skill -- your ability to communicate appropriately, effectively, and adaptively in a given situation
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