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Transcript of Pulmonay System
Diaphragm is the muscle involved in breathing
The diaphragm is a muscle that can be in both voluntary and involuntary control.
To breathe in your diaphragm must contract down ward creating a low pressure system (sucking) in the chest cavity.
It hurts to breathe when you have damage to your ribs.
The rib cage is a very important structure that allows the space of the lungs to be maintained as the diaphragm moves.
Pathway that air travels into the nasal or oral cavity past the pharynx and epiglotis into the trachea, which branches into the bronchi and then broncioles until the air reached the alveoli where gas exchange occurs. All these structures are rigid cartilage so that air can easily pass through them.
Is the build up of fatty plaques in the arteries that can lead to heart attack and strokes.
Plasma - The remaining 55% of blood is a water-based fluid that has dissolved nutrients, proteins, carbon dioxide, and cell waste.
Parts of blood
BP is measured in systolic pressure over diastolic pressure.
Systolic is the pressure from Ventricle contraction and is higher than the diastolic pressure.
Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries at ventricle dilation or rest.
There are 4 major blood types. Their names reflect if they have either of 2 proteins on the RBCs. Type A blood has “A” protein. Type B has “B” protein. Type AB has both. Type O has neither protein. You can only receive blood from someone with type O blood or your type.
Functions of Blood
Lots of surface area is necessary for adequate diffusion of CO2 and O2
Alveoli are where gas exchange takes place. There are roughly 600 million alveoli making a surface area of 100m2
Moisture is present in the alveoli and the 02 must dissolve in the water before diffusing past the epithelial cells into the blood.
Transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients.
Immunity (protection from pathogens)
Repair of damaged blood vessels
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)- The small cells that carry oxygen using a protein called hemoglobin. One RBC holds close to 1 billion molecules of hemoglobin. There are about 5 million RBCs in a drop of blood! They have no nucleus and usually survive for about 4 months until they are recycled in the spleen. The average adult makes about 2 million new RBCs daily.
White Blood Cells (WBCs) - Larger cells that attack & destroy pathogens. In a healthy person there are 4000-11,000 WBCs in a drop of blood. Increased numbers of WBCs indicate infection.
Platelets - These are fragments of WBCs that allow you to form blood clots that plug holes in blood vessels. There are roughly 250,000 - 500,000 platelets in a drop of blood.
RBCs, WBCs & platelets make up about 45% of your blood.
Valves play an important role in maintain the direction of blood flow.
Pulmonary or Semi Lunar valve
Mitral or bicuspid valve
Arteries carry blood away from the heart
Veins bring blood back to the heart
Capillaries are very small vessels where nutrients and gas exchange occur. They mark the transition from artery to vein.
Other Heart Malfunctions
A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies. The medical term for this is myocardial infarction.
Cardiac arrest, also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively