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AP Chemistry Final Project

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Colin Shelton

on 24 May 2013

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Transcript of AP Chemistry Final Project

AP Chemistry Final Project Colin Shelton Antidepressants Chemical Engineers Chem Engineers in the Real World Cleaning in Action! Bibliography Disinfectants, Antimicrobial, and Antibacterial Cleaners Thank you! Antidepressants treat bipolar disorder, depression, and even PMS. What is a chemical engineer? Patrick Dickerson These cleaners prohibit the growth or kill certain bacteria and viruses. Everyday, average people use disinfectants all the time on their kitchen counters, in their pool, and on their body. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disinfectant#Oxidizing_agents
http://www.ask.com/q/What-percentage-of-bacteria-is-killed-by-bleach Antidepressants at Work In your brain, neurons communicate with each other by sending neurochemical signals. The neuron sending the message makes a neurotransmitter to send the message to another neuron. This "message", when released from the neuron, is dumped into the synapse (the space between the sending and receiving neurons). This is where antidepressants kick in. History One of the first drugs that treated depression was the tuberculosis medicine, iproniazid. This medicine brightens the mood and increases activity. The iproniazid does this by blocking the incineration in the nerves cells. The incinerator or enzyme needs to be blocked because they break down norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. However, a different medicine called Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA) was the first clinically used antidepressant. TCAs work by blocking norepinephrine but not serotonin. Without the norepinephrine hormone most people at typically in a better mood and the addition of serotonin makes them happy. Today Today we use Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitor (SSRI) in most clinical practices. SSRIs have several degrees of selectivity as far as what “messengers” it stops from being transmitted. Serotonin Zimelidine Synapse (Z)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-amine
oZimelidine is a type of SSRIs that I talked about earlier which is blocked in the brain from being transmitted to the neuron acceptor Dig A Little Deeper... A Chemical Engineer and ME Bibliography
http://www1.salary.com/Engineering-Salaries.html Bib http://familydoctormag.com/mental-health/36-how-antidepressants-work.html
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db76.htmhttp://www.insaneasylumblog.com/2012/03/woman-killed-in-freak-clothing-drop-box.html#axzz2TzMf8ZuR University of Virginia & Engineering What are the Side Effects of Antidepressants ? Education requirements of becoming a chemical engineer... Safety Concerns... Serotonin is used in blocking the neurons from sending their “messages” SSRI side effects include but are not limited to: Serotonin syndrome, nausea, diarrhea, increased blood pressure, agitation, headaches, anxiety, nervousness, emotional liability, increased suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, insomnia, drug interactions, neonate adverse reactions, anorexia, dry mouth, somnolence, tremors, sexual dysfunction, decreased libido, asthenia, dyspepsia, dizziness, sweating, personality disorder, epistaxis, urinary frequency, menorrhagia, GI irregularities, muscle weakness, long term weight gain Like all engineers, chemical engineers use math, physics and economics to solve technical problems. Specifically, a chemical engineer just applies the science of chemistry. A chemical engineer might design, produce, or operate machinery by using their knowledge of chemistry. A typical engineer would work in a plant or lab, controlling and monitoring different conditions inside the plant or discovering new chemistry in the lab. A chemical engineer may be involved in industry or university research where they design and perform experiments to create new and better ways of production, controlling pollution, conserving resources and making these processes safer. Patrick Dickerson, a chemical engineer at Solutia, Inc., works in an area that produces hexamethylene diamine-a molecule used in the production of nylon. Dickerson explains that his work involves applying chemists’ findings to large-scale production. "We take what a chemist does-they synthesize a small amount of a material-and we scale it up to making several hundred tons per day. This process includes determining how to separate the desired product from its impurities." Dickerson continues, "We focus on kinetics more, and we're concerned with things such as fluid flow and heat transfer on a large scale-things that you don’t necessarily have to worry about with smaller reactions in beakers. We design equipment that will accommodate these concerns." The synthesis of nylon is a typical chemical reaction that a chemical engineer would conduct. Nylon is used as fish nets, woven into fabrics and used in the production of machine parts. Another possibility chemical engineers are working on is making bio renewable chemicals. Scientists at the University of Virginia have had high catalytic reactivity when placed in alkaline water. They studied the mechanism for oxidizing ethanol and glycerol into acids, such as acetic acid and glyceric acid, which are used in everything from food additives to glues, by using gold and platinum as catalysts. The scientists say that in doing this they can outline a path for developing a range of different reactions needed to transition from a petroleum-based chemical industry to one that uses bio renewable carbon feedstock. Their research shows how water can play an important role in the oxidation catalysis of alcohols. A chemical engineer typically has a bachelor’s degree, master’s degree or Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering. A chemical engineer might take Organic Chemistry, Biology, Calculus or Computer Science classes in order to complete his/her degree. A Chemical Engineer's median pay is about $110,000 I would not choose to become a chemical engineer, in this profession you must be in a plant most of the time. You would often watch a computer monitor to record different conditions of the processes proceeding in the plant. I want a job where I would be able to travel and not be in an office or cubical all day. For example sodium hypochlorate can be used to disinfect drinking water or other water systems. You can use sodium hypochlorite to treat dilute cyanide waste water. When performing this process, toxic cyanide is oxidized to cyanate which is not toxic as represented by this equation. When using chlorine to disinfect water such as in a water system, inhaling excess amounts can lead to chest pain and skin and eye irritation and sometimes even death.
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