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Argument Structure

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by

James Bunker

on 12 September 2016

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Transcript of Argument Structure

Argument Function & Structure
What is an Argument?
Not a quarrel or a fight
Debate of convictions
Uses Evidence and Reasons
Helps us arrive at fairness or version of truth
Settles disputes
Purpose of Arguments
Change people's points of view
Persuade others to accept new points of view
Persuade others to to actions/new behaviors
Teach us how to evaluate conflicting claims
Teach us how to judge evidence and reasons
Help us to clarify thoughts and articulate clearly
Help us to consider others' ideas critically
Argument Structure
Claim
Warrant
Impact
Claim
States your argumentative position
States belief or opinion you are defending
Example
Video games increases violent behavior in young adolescents
Strong Claims vs. Weak Claims
Strong claims are not obvious/vague
Strong claims are contestable
Strong claims are logical
Strong claims emerge from evidence
Strong claims state one point
Strong claims are declarative
Good Claim or Bad Claim?
I will discuss video games

I will discuss violence in video games

Do violent video games promote youth violence?

Violent video games increase violent behavior in young adolescents and adults

Violent video games increase violent behavior in young adolescents
Exercise
Warrant/Evidence
What you cite to support claim
Claims are supported with facts
Unsupported claims are assertions
Types of Evidence
Facts or Statistics
2012 Money Race:
New York Times
Expert Opinion
Personal anecdotes
Glue that holds arguments together
Links the evidence to the claim
This evidence supports this claim because...
Interprets the data and shows up it supports claim
Warrant explain why and how evidence proves claim
Impact Statements
Reasonable interpretation of facts
Do not make illogical interpretive leaps
Do not assume more than evidence supports
May consider and respond to counter-arguments
Example
Claim
Forks were used in France in the 15th Century
Evidence
Paintings of banquets from that period show now forks on the tables or people eating with them
Warrant
Contemporary paintings are very good indications of the customs of an age.
Impact
Claim
Warrant
Finding Good Evidence
Example
Claim:
Dogs are better than cats
Warrant:
A study by the Academy of Veterinarians found that 2/3 chose dogs as their preferred pet compared to cats
Impact:
Therefore by selecting a dog you are more likely to be a satisfied pet owner who enjoys raising your pet
Example
Claim:
Mosquito netting is needed to protect against malaria
Warrant
: According to the World Health Organization mosquito netting reduces the risk of contracting malaria by a factor of ten to twenty
Impact:
Thus, 500,000 lives could be saved in Africa each year if mosquito bed nets were provided to African families
Full transcript