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Transcript of Transgenic Organisms
~CEO of Otsuka Inc. (Mr. Kobayashi) Medicinal Eggs New allergies What is a GMO? A transgenic organism is defined an organism that is made when it acquires a new gene in its DNA gmo-freephoenix.com 1. Microinjection Eggs fertilized in vitro
Gene = inserted randomly into nucleus. CONS: few eggs develop, or express the gene 2. Retroviral Vectors Specific genome infects the embryonic cells CONS: Only a few cells will accept the gene 3. Embryonic Stem Cell Transfer A gene is inserted into the DNA at a specific site in the genome in an embryonic stem cell CONS: Many heated ethical debates Good Deeds The Pros More nutritional Safer to eat Solving malnutrition Efficiently grown crops Helping vaccination Easily grown foods Self-sufficient society Research diseases Human Therapy Hypo-allergenic animals and foods Animal health Banana Vaccines Carbon-capturing plants Antibiotic-resistance genes Fatal to other organisms Small farmers will be hurt Affect the economy Reliance on mono-cultures Controversy with ethics Transgenic are not labeled or regulated The Legal Aspect... The Legal Aspect... Bt Corn Super weeds Monoculture "It is unsafe to have GMOs because we do not know how humans will react to the organisms. It has not been long since we've started using GMOs, so it is a very risky thing to do because it might affect us negatively in the future."
~CEO of Otsuka (Mr. Kobayashi) "For centuries we have purchased food from people we trusted. The reliable qualities and properties of food have allowed it to play a role in rituals and religious practices. Altering food may deprive believers of the assurance that food is pure or kosher. Fear of food's content can alter one's sense of well-being."
--Dr. Paul R. Billings, a director of the Council for Responsible Genetics  How are transgenic organisms made?
Three main ways to incorporate a certain trait into an organism's DNA "With genetic engineering, familiar foods could become metabolically dangerous or even toxic. Even if the transgene itself is not dangerous or toxic, it could upset complex biochemical networks and create new bioactive compounds or change the concentrations of those normally present. In addition, the properties in proteins may change in a new chemical environment because they may fold in new ways. Further, the potential toxic or carcinogenic effects could have substantial latency periods."
--from The Need for Greater Regulation and Control of Genetic Engineering: A Statement by Scientists Concerned About Trends in the New Biotechnology  "All plants, and all animals including humans, are genetically modified. That is what evolution means. They are genetically modified by natural selection of random mutations and recombinations. Some, such as maize, wheat, cabbages, and roses, are additionally modified by domestic breeding. And some are modified by engineered mutation or recombination. Any of these three kinds of genetic modification can have desirable or undesirable consequences."
--Prof. Richard Dawkins, author and expert on evolutionary genetics  "The benefits of biotechnology are many and include providing resistance to crop pests to improve production and reduce chemical pesticide usage, thereby making major improvements in both food quality and nutrition."
--World Health Organization Expert Consultation on Biotechnology and Food Safety  Not many laws = No strict regulation
Genetic engineering is in the hands of large private companies --> harder to control
No labeling of GMO's... If there are labels it would cost people more money Genetic engineering in small companies = more jobs
GMO's create more revenue for scientists and farmers
More jobs will be created through export --> boost economy
More laws are currently being created about GMO's Bibliography "How Are GMOs Made?" HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
LUPKIN, SYDNEY. "Genetically Engineered Salmon Nears FDA Approval." ABC News. ABC News Network, 28 Dec. 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"MNN - Mother Nature Network." MNN - Mother Nature Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"The Wide Angle: Top 10 Eccentric Transgenic Animals." Discovery Channel. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.. Flavr Savr From the perspective of a Biology teacher: GMOs are ethical
They aren't dangerous
Future? Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. WiseGeek. Conjecture, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. "Arguments For and Against Genetically ModifiedÂ Organisms." About.com Animal Rights. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms --HGP Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues."Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms --HGP Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
Nakate, Shashank. "Genetically Modified Organisms Pros and Cons." Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 09 Sept. 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Research Article: Transgenic Organisms: Ethical Issues." BookRags. BookRags, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. "Biotechnology Usda." Biotechnology | USDA. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"California Proposition 37, Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food (2012)." - Ballotpedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Products." Monsanto. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.