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Transcript of Skiing
Angles & Velocity
Depending on the angles of the slopes, the difficulty of the skiing trail can increase or decrease.
The speed and velocity of the skiers can be affected by factors like the angle of the slope, wind and weight.
The design of the skis like adding curves can impact turning and the control of skis.
In addition longer skis can increase speed("Physics").
Skiing first started as a way of transportation rather than sport.
The term "ski" comes from a norse word meaning "split piece of wood("Cross").
There are different types of skiing like alpine, cross-country and freestyle skiing.
History of Skiing
Over time the ski evolved by finding the right size, as well as changing the material. This was due to increasing technology as well as the purpose skis were needed for.
From transportation to recreation and competition, skiing has come a long way("A History").
Evolution of the Ski
Many variations of the ski have been created to keep getting more effective.
Starting in the B.C. time period, skis were used for hunting purposes. There is debate about the first origins between Scandanavia or areas of modern-day China("A History").
Until recently with new advanced materials, wood was the main component of skis.
In addition now the majority of skis are carved in order for better control which is more efficient(Masia).
How the sport developed
When Skiing first started
Very early on, skiing started in China as a tool for hunting game because it allowed for people to travel easier("A History").
The skiing that most people know of today was mostly developed in Scandanavia though("History of").
This is said because it is more similar to the modern ski.
Angle of the slope
Speed/Velocity of the skiiers
Shape of skis/effect
Chemistry & Materials
Publications & Popularity
How did skiing evolve to be the competitive & popular sport it is today?
When the natural snow is not enough to sustain a quality experience, artificial snow is then used as a replacement.
Over time the materials used for the ski equipment has changed in order to be more efficient when riding.
Developing Artificial Snow
Components of ski equipment
Publications about skiing have influenced how skiing has grown.
Publications about skiing
"A History of Skis." First Skiers - A History of Skis. National Geographic Society, 2014. Web. 30 Aug. 2014.
"Comparative Steepness of Select U.S. Ski Trails." Comparing Steepness of Ski Trails. Gondy Line, 2014. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
"Cross Country Skiing Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org." Equipment and History. The Olympics, 2013. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
"History Of Skiing." History Of Skiing. Snow Ski Discounters, 2009. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
"How Snowmaking Works." Ski Roundtop. Roundtop Mountain Resort, 2014. 30 Aug. 2014.
Lind, David, and Scott P. Sanders. "Physics of Skiing." Physics of Skiing. American Institute of Physics, 1997. Web. 29 Aug. 2014.
Masia, Seth. "Evolution of Ski Shape." International Skiing History Association. N.p., 2013. Web. 30 Aug. 2014.
Mechanics of Sport. "SKI CAMBERS." Ski Cambers. N.p., 2014. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
Mechanics of Sport. "SKI CONSTRUCTION." Ski Construction. N.p., 2014. Web. 30 Aug. 2014.
Onion, Amanda. "The Science Behind Olympic Skiing." ABC News. ABC News Network, 08 Feb. 2014. Web. 30 Aug. 2014.
"Physics Of Skiing." Real World Physics Problems. N.p., 2014. Web. 29 Aug. 2014.
Many gallons of cold water as well as compressed air is needed in order to create snow. This is handled at sites away from the ski mountains involving complex machines.
The water usually comes from a lake or other body of water where it is electronically pumped up a pipeline.
Then it is cooled and handled in preparation for use at ski resorts("How Snowmaking").
There are two pumps that supply the snow making machines on the sides of the trails. One delivers the water while the other delivers the compressed air("How Snowmaking").
Early skis would have been basic and made of a wooden material .
Most modern day skis have a core such as kevlar, fiberglass, and carbon fiber with laminated wood also.
Other components of the ski include polyethylene plastic for the base and resin.
Wax is also used to lessen the friction(Mechanics of Sport "Ski Construction").
Ski coats are made of materials such as Gore-Tex currently.
Ski helmets are made of plastic as the outside with foam and fabric on the inside.
These advancements in what ski equipment is made of increases safety.
Only until the early 1800s has skiing started developing quickly into the sport/recreational activity it is today(Masia).
Skis were not first made for speed but to stay on top of the snow.
The first organized skiing events as a sport started in the early 1800s("History of")
Skiing then progressed on from there growing popularity and being featured in the Winter Olympics.
Many versions of skiing were competed for like downhill, slalom, nordic, and freestyle("History of").
Through newspapers and other communications, skiing popularity spread more recently as sport
Traditional skiing ad to call attention to the growing sport
A chart showing the recent numbers of snow sports participation.
Through the late 20th century, skiing has gained a lot of popularity.
Most ski slopes have a steepness of 20 degrees to about 40 degrees depending on the ease of the trail.
If you take out the bumps, moguls, and the quality of the snow, the steeper slopes are usually the more difficult ones for skiers.
Pictured as a triangle, ski mountains involve the length of the slope which is the side that skiers are riding along("Comparative").
Ski designs involve camber and rocker usually.
Camber involves the top and tail of the ski being on the ground while the waist or the middle is raised in the air.
Rocker involves when the tip or tail rise off the ground when the ski is in motion.
As seen to the right, there are multiple combinations for the ski design(Mechanics of Sport "Ski Cambers")
Camber and rocker as well as curves along the side can affect the ski.
There are also various types of ski tips that are used for different types of skiing.
In addition the size of the tip plays a role as well.
Also there is the vertical drop or the elevation compared to its surroundings("Comparative").
So over time, skiers have challenged themselves with steeper slopes to continue to grow the sport.
For skiers, speed is influenced by a wide variety of factors like friction, wind, gravity, and the surface of the trail.
Skiers also need to stay in a straight motion to maximize their speed.
So taking wide turns through the snow will slow down the acceleration of the skier("Physics").
Since wind plays a factor in slowing down skiers, skiers usually crouch down into a tucked position.
In addition, adding wax to the bottom of skis can decrease the amount of friction between the surface.
Momentum can be boosted through a strong take off from the start usually assisted by pushing off with poles.
By: Ryan Wyckoff
Skiing is a sport that I enjoy and has inspire me to keep progressing.