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Biggest threat, Hitler, Mussolini or Stalin?
Transcript of Biggest threat, Hitler, Mussolini or Stalin?
In 1919 Mussolini created the Fascist party. The party attracted many war veterans who came back and had
Italy had not gained at all from WWI. When Stalin rose to be dictator, or “Il duce”, he wanted to invade and conquer more land.
Abyssinia was one of the only parts of Africa that was unclaimed by European powers. It was extremely near some of Italy’s other colonies, and even though Italy had signed the Treaty of Friendship in 1928, it was clear that Mussolini was interested in Abyssinia.
The Failure in Abyssinia by the League of Nations (1935-6)
It was clear the Mussolini wanted to invade Abyssinia in 1935. The problem was, both Italy and Abyssinia were in the League of Nations. What were they to do?
The League feared and respected Mussolini as he was a potential ally against Germany, and he had a lot of power within his own country.
The league assumed that Britain and France (the two most powerful countries in the league) would stop Italy. But instead, they made a secret pact to try and give Abyssinia to Italy, to make things easier. All the league did was ban the sale of arms, which harmed Abyssinia because they didn't have many weapons at all. When Italy invaded, the natives were slaughtered.
Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to accept responsibility for starting WW1.
Germany was not allowed to negotiate terms about the treaty
German army was restricted to 100,000 men.
France was given Alsace and Lorraine.
Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria.
How Hitler worked...
Hitler knew that the Treaty of Versailles had hurt German people, even people who were not involved in WW1.
The treaty of Versailles made Germany have to pay lots of money. Look at the slide on the left to see what happened to Germany. Hitler fed of this to gain support of lots of German people.
Means Living Space.
This was one of Hitler's aims and was the expansion of Germany. This was one of the aims of the first world war too.
One of the Nazi party's main ideology.
Who was the biggest threat to world peace?
Stalin's Orders And Power
Stalin realised that if Russia was to become a key player in the global market, the country needed to industrialise and increase production. To do this, Stalin introduced the Five-year Plans.
By the 1920's it was obvious that Russia's agriculture was failing. Although the kulaks (rich peasant farmers) were relatively wealthy and successful, the thousands of other peasant farms were not producing enough to feed the population. In 1927, Stalin declared that each village was to voluntarily unite their farms into one collective farm. Unfortunately for Stalin- everybody ignored him so two years later he made collectivisation compulsory
Germany had to pay £6.2 billion pounds in 1921. This was for damage caused by WW1.
Wanted to destroy The Treaty of Versailles.
Wanted to take land, and countries. See lebensraum for more.
Wanted to eliminate people who were not of the Aryan race. Hitler thought these were a master race.
Did not like communists, wanted to eliminate them.
Thought as Jews as the lowest form of humanity.
Wanted to unite with Austria, this would mean invading them and taking them over.
Didn't like democracy, wanted to be a dictator. Taking over, gaining power.
<--- Best Moustache
= Collectivised land
In 1934, the leader of the Leningrad Communist Party was murdered, possibly on Stalin's orders. Stalin used this disaster to order massive purges where anybody even suspected of disloyalty was murdered, sent to prison camps, or put on public show trials where they were forced to plead guilty for crime they could never have comitted.
The Communist leadership was purged, 93 of the 139 Central Committee members were executed!
The armed forces were purged, 81 of the 103 generals and admirals were Put to death!
The Communist Party was purged - about 1/3 of its 3 million members were killed!
By the end of the 1930s, the killing had spread to ordinary people - anybody who even
as though they had a will of their own were killed or sent to the Gulag (the system of labour camps mostly in Siberia). About 20 million ordinary Russians ended up being sent to the gulag, where around half of them died.
Power And Influence
Everybody had to praise Stalin, all of the time. Newspapers credited him with every success. Poets thanked him for bringing the harvest. People jumped to their feet to applaud every time his name was mentioned. His picture was everywhere and parents even had to teach their children to love Stalin more than themselves. They dared not do anything else. Also the Christian Church and the Muslim religion were forbidden.
By 1939, he had set up a personal totalitarian dictatorship where - on one word from him - the entire Soviet Union did exactly what he said.
In 1921, the Fascist party had so much power it was invited to join the Coalition government. It is registered as an official party in 1921, even if the ideology and members had been there since 1919.
The Blackshirts had gained a lot support from landowners as they didn’t want the gangs to damage their property. This is where most of their power came from.
In 1922, politically, Italy was in chaos. The Blackshirts marched through Rome with Mussolini. The fascists took control of the government.
Slowly, part by part, Mussolini destroyed the democracy, and made himself the dicator, or “Il duce”, in 1926.
no jobs. He effectively organised them (the war veterans) into gangs. The gangs as a whole were called the “Blackshirts”, and used terrible measures to terrify their political enemies.
Did you know? Stalin's own son Yakov, shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him, He survived. But later on in the war, Yakov is said to have committed suicide, running into an electric fence.
The peasants hated the idea, so they burned their crops and killed their animals rather than hand them over to the state. Which wasn't the best idea because there was another famine in 1930.
By 1939, 99 per cent of land had been collectivised 90% of the peasants lived on one of the 250,000 kolkhoz (the united farm). Farming was run by government officials and the government took 90% of production and left the rest for the people to live on.
Stalin blamed the kulaks, and declared war on them. They were executed or sent to the gulag.
Stalin's main aim was to expand industrial production. For this, he developed three Five-year Plans between 1928 and 1938. The Soviet Union also gave opportunities to women - crèches were set up so they could also work. Women became doctors and scientists, as well as canal diggers and steel workers.
At the same time, many of the workers were slaves and kulaks from the gulag. Strikers were shot, and slow workers could be executed or imprisoned. Thousands died from accidents, starvation or cold. Housing and wages were terrible, and no consumer goods were produced for people.
But the improvements in production between 1928 and
• Coal - from 36 million tonnes to 130 million tonnes
• Iron - from 3 million tonnes to 15 million tonnes
• Oil - from 2 million tonnes to 29 million tonnes
• Electricity - from 5,000 million to 36,000
1937 were amazing:
Mussolini was a Fascist dictator. He demanded extreme nationality and allegiance to the dictator, or “Il duce”.
Mussolini thought this phrase was very useful in post WWI Italy. “Believe, Obey, Fight” He was very keen on bringing back the greatness of the Roman Empire to Italy. Mussolini was extremely right-winged.
We believe that Stalin was the greatest threat before WWII. This is because he had immense power. Russians trusted in Stalin, as he had revived their economy and their agricultural and industrial production had gone up astronomically. This lead to him being able to take more power, as they trusted him. Stalin served extremely well as a leader,(until he became power-crazed and murderous!) he turned russia from a corrupted country to one of the biggest players in the trade market and the world. We all know Russia to be a powerful place now still.
It had always been clear that Stalin was brutal, but it was hard to see what he was going to do before WWII. He was extremely paranoid and very unpredictable which made him a force to be reckoned with.
Whilst Germany was still a threat to post-WWI peace, it seemed unlikely that they could/would start another war, with their infantry limited to 100,000 and being in a huge recession after the Great War. Also, Hitler dismantled the democracy in Germany quite slowly, so it would’ve been quite hard to predict what atrocities he was capable of.
Italy was also a pretty large threat, and even though Mussolini had huge power within Italy and its colonies, it didn’t have much strength outside of them. Mussolini, like Hitler, was also dealing with a crippled economy and didn’t have much money to start a war.
Until the war started, Stalin looked to be the greatest threat. When Germany and Italy joined forces, that is when the tide started to turn.