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Qui cherche, trouve
Transcript of Qui cherche, trouve
The political economy of access to gold mining and trade in South Kivu, DRC
Gold mining and trade in South Kivu
Access = ability to benefit
1. How much do people benefit?
2. How do people benefit?
3. What determines their ability to benefit?
“[Question: if you compare the profits of a miner with the salary of a day labourer at Banro, how would you compare?] You cannot compare because an artisanal miner is free. In our conception, a miner is a rich man if he does not work for another person. He goes to work when he wants, if he wants, he may work for two hours and if God blesses him he may find enough money to buy a car in these two hours.”
“A real miner can never accept to leave mining. Going to work for a salary? Companies pay maybe USD 170 to 200 per month. Which miner can accept that? Not one! Beyond the obvious sacrifices they are doing and the difficult circumstances they are working in, when he has a production, he forgets all that. Because he is earning money. […] He knows that some periods he will earn nothing. He knows that is part of the game. But eventually he will profit. So all these sufferings, it is like a woman who is expecting her baby. It is hard for nine months, but once the baby is born, she forgets about it! After some time, you’ll see her pregnant again!"
“In order to have customers first you need to sponsor them. You need to create a relationship. When they come here, they tell you: “We would like to go into the job, but we don’t have money to buy this and this.” So you give them. You take a risk by giving them, because they can run away. But when they get something [gold], they must come back to you. Then the friendship is going on.”
"We are all men of trust : we give trust, we receive trust and we deserve trust. That is how we do our business.”
"We only take what is ours;
it's the land of the Congolese!"
3) efficiency? employment
1. Artisanal gold mining and trading activities may not be regulated by state law, but they are regulated by professional norms
2. These activities offer benefits – not only financial – to a whole range of actors
3. These actors use rights, but also structures and relations in order to be able to benefit
4. Power is distributed in complex ways: actors hold bundles of powers which contain both mechanisms for maintaining and for controlling access
5. But as a result of external changes, the configuration between access maintenance and access control may change
98% of gold smuggled out
activities not regulated by state law, no official property titles, less efficiency and security => 'informality' => 'formalisation'