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Asia including Russia

Sarah Smith

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of APWH CCOT Project

Over Time JAPAN JAPAN: CHANGE JAPAN: CONTINUITY Political Economic Religious Intellectual Social Artistic Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic CHINA: CONTINUITY CHINA: CHANGE Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic RUSSIA: CHANGE Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic VIETNAM: CHANGE Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic RUSSIA: CONTINUITY Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic VIETNAM: CONTINUITY KOREA KOREA: CHANGE Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic KOREA: CONTINUITY Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic (Period 1-2): Luxury trade, food exchanges, wealth of merchants, copper coins (Period 2-3): Silk roads, agricultural implements (increased manufacturing: water power mills), Tang and Song canal system, flying money, luxury crafts, Afro-Eurasian trade Trading contacts with the Middle East, use of iron, luxury trade, wealthy merchants, food exchanges (Period 2-3): Emergence of a commercial class, guild organizations, new crops and animals, and tools Important trade with China (Period 2-3): weak traders and artisans class, trade was done by royal and aristocratic families (artisan production, moneylending, mercantile expeditions) Trade with Japan and China (Period 2-3): became the most productive agriculture in Southeast Asia Trade with different regions, and southern China (Period 2-3): city of Kiev became a prosperous trading center; dependence on Byzantine Empire for (luxury) trade Use of iron, trading contacts with Scandinavia and Constantinople, flourishing trade. Classical: Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism Postclassical: Influence of Buddhism Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism continued to exist Classical: Agricultural Improvements, iron, water powered mills, paper Postclassical: Tang/Song era: remarkable accomplishments Continual improvement of new agricultural tools Classical: Shintoism Postclassical: Buddhism (popular and Zen) Shintoism continued to exist INDIA INDIA: CHANGE Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic INDIA: CONTINUITY Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic MIDDLE EAST RELIGION (Period 2-3): Poetry and short stories= splendid artistic creations of all time, landscape paintings (nature), Song era- symbolic paintings, abstract aspect Largely decorative, stressed careful detail and craftsmanship, calligraphy (Period 2-3): writing verse=most valued art at the court, poems written on painted fans or scented paper, first novel in any language( The Tale of Genji) ink sketches, screen and scroll paintings(captured natural beauty of Japan) Subtly shaped and glazed pots and cups(service of tea) (Period 2-3): Influenced by Chinese, religious art, porcelain
manufacture(learned from chinese) Importance placed on artwork (Period 1-2): literary epics passed down orally later written in Sanskrit,
first epics came about (Mahabbarata, Ramayana, Upanishads) Hinduism influence on literature, religious(statues of Buddha) Vietnamese writers=angry towards Confucianism (Period 2-3): developed art, literature, especially poetry=refined, and distinct(from that of Chinese) preserved and commented on past forms, icon painting, folk music and oral legends (Period 2-3): art and architecture developed(domed buildings,) colored religious mosaics, literature used Cyrillic alphabet,(mix of religious and royal events) (Period 2-3): scholar gentry and common people to basic unit of social organization being the tribe, divided into kin-related clans, women had considerate influence in the family, showed some independence Women subordinate to men, peasants were still the lowest class with the least political influence (Period 2-3): aristocratic rank by birth=no social mobility, emergence of bushi(warrior class), women=appendages of warrior husbands and fathers, lost ritual roles in religion, men replaced them in theaters Women subordinate to men (Period 2-3): different ethnic blend, aristocratic families divided into ranks, “low borns”(class), aristocrats only mattered. Korean elite favoring Buddhism over Confucianism, born into rank (Period 1-2): village chief and tribes to caste system, rights of women increasingly limited, merchants married into royal families
(Period 2-3): harems and veils for women Aryan ideas and social and family forms, village organization, dominance of husband, children were pampered, social classes, not self-oriented, reliance on peasant classes, child's role, value of women but dominance of huband Women= influence in family and society, kept their own identity, was not greatly influenced by Chinese. Vietnamese women hostile towards Confucianism (Period 2-3): women intermarrying, greater influence within family and society, different dress, North and South division(southern barbarians) (Period 2-3)women occasionally held throne, officials could be taken by all social classes, aristocratic land lord class and peasant class who were free farmers Intermarried with people from outside world, numerous urban lower class (Period 1-2): trade expanded more, trading contacts with China, Middle East, and the Mediterranean mountains used for herding, coast used for trading (Indian Ocean) Classical: extensive agriculture, use of iron, and introduction of writing
Postclassical: pursuit of beauty, The Tale of Genji Outpouring of literary works Introduction of Sinified variants of Buddhism Spread of Islam Linked trade centers Spread by sufi mystics Adoption of Chinese writing, Sinification Access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goods Importance and influence of Buddhism Classical: Polytheistic Aryan religion, Hinduism, spread of Buddhism
Postclassical: Hinduism took fuller shape, Islam became minority religion (Period 1-2): Literature- lively story lines, drama flourished, impressive scientific and mathematical advancements Distinctive artistic form Hinduism- majority Continued to practice Buddhism Expression through poetry Became increasingly attached to grassroots level of Buddhism Agriculture became very productive, poetry became a symbol of resistance Presence of Christianity Russian literature used the Cyrillic alphabet Split of Christianity and emergence of East Orthodox Church Literature featured religious and royal events (Period 1-2): regional landlords/ organized provinces-->central authority-->state bureaucracy
(Period 2-3)feudal w/ regional alliances --> regional land-owning aristocrats, organized large provinces under Shi Huangdi-->central administration; bureaucracy, then bureaucracy w/ Confucian scholar-gentry (Period 1-2) Mandate of Heaven, dynasties
(Period 2-3) strong local units, network of alliances, monarchs/ emperor Period (2-3): Japanese Monarch --> Chinese style bureaucracy, emperor-->Fujiwara --> Minamoto Shogunate/ bakufu-->Hojo, rise of bushi-->daimyos Chinese-style bureaucracy, differing dynasties overrule emperor, network of alliances (Period 2-3): family tribes/ villages-->loose regional kingdoms --> regional aristocrats + boyar --> rival princes-->invasions regionalism, political figureheads, move in on inhabitants (Period 2-3)Choson kingdom conquered by China, influences, different kingdoms, tribute payments/ monarch’s submission = vassal-->independent-->Koryo dynasty-->aristocracy + Korean bureaucracy-->Mongol Invasions Breaking/ forming of alliances, different divisions/ rankings, conquered (Period 1-2): rajas/priests-->village chiefs-->regionalism/autocratic kings/ emperors-->Maurya --> Gupta
(Period 2-3): Maurya-->Gupta-->emperor-->bureaucracy (Period 1-2): political power from land owners, used caste systems to govern, always used religion to help govern
(Period 2-3):village autonomy-->vassal/ tributary-->drawn into bureaucratic machine --> revolts by aristocracy-->Chinese-style bureaucracy --> division of N. & S. unite under 1 monarch Struggle to resist China, influence from China, retain identity, divisions
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