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Rhetoric, Persuasion, and Motivated Speaking
Transcript of Rhetoric, Persuasion, and Motivated Speaking
Urging your audience to take action and carry out your need.
Explain specifically what your audience can do.
Give a few examples of actions the audience can use.
Be specific and ask for small changes in behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, or policy.
Motivated Sequence - Action
Show the audience how they can satisfy the need you have described.
Answer objections the audience might have.
Not directly, but indirectly know what the objections might be ahead of time in your argument.
Empower the audience.
Motivated Sequence – Satisfaction
Where you attempt to appeal to the audience
Logos, Pathos, Ethos, Kairos?
Demonstrate there is a problem or issue that needs to be addressed and changed.
Audience question, “Why do I need to know this?”
Audience Response, “Oh, there is a problem.”
Don’t overdramatize the need.
Motivated Sequence - Need
Focus your audiences’ attention to you and your speech
Your audience will internally/externally question, “Why should I listen to you?”
You want to get your audience interested early on.
Make attention relevant to the speech.
Motivated Sequence - Attention
Ancient Greek for “Opportune Moment”
Plural, Kairoi means “The Times”
Greek had two words for time
Chronos- Sequential and Chronological Time (Quantitative)
Kairos- Indeterminate Time (Qualitative)
Time and Place as context for appealing to an audience.
Making your time happen NOW.
Kairos – Appeal to Timeliness
Originally meaning “A ground, a plea, an opinion, to reason”
Aristotle defined it as reasoned discourse.
Deals with facts, figures, data, etc. that support an argument.
Logos – Appeal to Logic
Ancient Greek for “Accustomed Place”
Ethos is the root form of ethikos or “showing Moral Character”
Used to describe guiding beliefs or ideals to characterize a nation, group, or ideology.
Ethos – Appeal to Credibility
Ancient Greek for “Suffering” or “Experience”
Most common in Literature, Film, and other narrative art forms.
Pathos – Appeal to Emotions
Appeal to Emotions
Different Types of Appeals
Burke’s Pentad (Dramatism) (A Grammar of Motives)
“If action, then drama; if drama, then conflict; if conflict, victimage”
What is Rhetoric?
Kenneth Burke- Identification as Persuasion.
Identification- “You persuade a man only insofar as you can talk his language…identifying your ways with his” (Rhetoric of Motives, 55-57).
Knowing where you are divided from your audience and attempting to bring that division together.
What is Rhetoric?
Rhetoric- The Art of Discourse.
Aristotle- Discovering all available means of Persuasion.
More interested in how Rhetoric is constructed.
What is Rhetoric?
and The Motivated Sequence of Persuasion
Show your audience what the situation will be like when the need is met.
What would be different or improved from this?
Be realistic, don’t ask your audience to bring you the Moon.
Small, realistic goals.
Motivated Sequence - Visualization
Strengthen or Weaken attitudes, beliefs, and values.
E.G. Religious Sermons, PSA,
The Goals for Persuasion
Canons of Rhetoric
Invention-What is it?
Arrangement-How is it constructed?
Style-What argumentation techniques are being used?
Memory-How well does the speaker know what they are speaking about?
Delivery-How well is the speech articulated, enunciated, and pronounced?
Motivate your audience to take action.
E.G. Get your audience to do something–donate money, protest, etc.
Change Attitudes, beliefs, or values.
E.G. change policies, laws, values, etc.
Appeal to Logic
Appeal to Credibility
Appeal to Timeliness
As a metaphor or personal anecdote
The passion with which you speak
Appealing to Pathos can be constructed as a logical fallacy.
Reductio ad Hitlerum!
Phronesis – Practical Skills & Wisdom
Arete – Virtue, Goodness
Eunoia – Goodwill towards the audience.